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Agriculture and Food Sciences

Fruits and Vegetables

Agriculture and Food Sciences
Table of contents.
Animals in farming
Food grain
Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits from A-Z
Veggies from A-Z
Annotation or definition
Agricultural Machinery and Equipments
Aromatic Plants
Beverages & Juices
Cereals and Pulses
Coconut and Coir Products
Dairy Products
Dry Fruits & Nuts
Edible Oils
Essential Oils
Food grain
Fruits and Vegetables
Herbal Products
Marine Food Supplies
Meat & Poultry Food
Pickles & Condiments
Processed Food & Snacks
State department of agriculture and food sciences.
Other Agro Products

Annotation or definition
What is agriculture?
What are crops?
What does cultivated plant mean?
What does it mean to sow and reap?
What does perennial, biennial and annual plants mean?
What is Livestock?
What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the science, art and occupation of cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising livestock. Agriculture is the very basis of civilization. It is the food we eat, the clothing we wear, the material of our homes, the gardens around us, and many of our traditions and values.

In addition to food and fiber, some of the products we use everyday come from plant and animal by-products produced by farmers and ranchers for example:
Health Care: Pharmaceuticals, ointments, surgical sutures, latex gloves, x-ray film.
Manufacturing: Adhesives, lubricants, solvents, detergents, polymers
Education: Crayons, textbooks, chalk, desks, pencils, paper
Personal Care: Shampoo, lotions, cosmetics, toothpaste, fingernail polish
Construction: Lumber, paints, tar paper, brushes, dry wall, particle board, tool handles

What are crops?
A crop is any cultivated plant, fungus, or alga that is harvested for food, clothing, livestock fodder, biofuel, medicine, or other uses. In contrast, animals that are raised by humans are called livestock, except those that are kept as pets. Microbes, such as bacteria or viruses, are referred to as cultures. Microbes are not typically grown for food, but are rather used to alter food. For example, bacteria are used to ferment milk to produce yogurt.

Major crops include sugarcane, pumpkin, maize (corn), wheat, rice, cassava, soybeans, hay, potatoes and cotton.
Based on the growing season
kharif crops and rabi crops.

The 10 Most Important Crops In The World
1. Corn
2. Wheat
3. Rice
4. Potatoes
5. Cassava
6. Soybeans
7. Sweet potatoes
8. Sorghum
9. Yams
10. Plantains
Despite its similar look to the banana, plantains differ from bananas in structure, feel, taste and use.

What does cultivated plant mean?
Plants that are grown for their produce

What does it mean to sow and reap?
Sowing and reaping is an almost perfect analogy of life. We can hardly do better than to see life as a process of sowing seed and reaping a harvest and to take care how we sow.

What does perennial, biennial and annual plants mean?
Plants can be classified as either annual, biennial, or perennial. Annual plants live for only one growing season, during which they produce seeds, then die. Familiar annual plants include impatiens, zinnias, and sunflowers. Biennial plants, such as some types of foxglove, live for two growing seasons before setting seed and dying. The term perennial is reserved for plants that live for more than two years.

What is Livestock?
Farm animals/domesticated mammal (such as cows, sheep, and goats) that are kept, raised, and used by people.

State department of agriculture and food sciences.
Answers to relevant questions.
Annotation or Definition
Aerial Photography Field Office (AFPO) of the Farm Service
Agriculture and food sciences law
Agricultural Engineering and Technologies
Agricultural Facilities and Equipment
Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Agriculture Network Information Center
Agriculture in the Classroom - Educational resources
Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Animal Breeding
Animal Agriculture
Animal Nutrition
Animal Science, Other
Agronomy & Crop Science
Agricultural & Horticultural Plant Breeding
Agricultural Waste
Apple varieties
Characteristics of Agricultural Land in Various Geographical Regions.
Community Food Systems
Dairy farming
Environmental Science
Farm Animals
Food sources
Flour Mill
Food Processing
Food Items
Food and Nutrition Surveys
Food Composition
Food Dictionaries and Encyclopedia
Food Labeling
Food Science & Technology
Fisheries and Aquaculture
Fishing and Fisheries Sciences/Fisheries management
Food Safety
Food Science and Technology
Food Supply
Food Science
Food Science and Food Technology, Other
Horticulture Science
Let's examine agriculture.
Livestock Management Facilities Act
Natural resources/Conservation
Plant Pathology/Phytopathology
Plant Sciences, Other
Poultry farming
Processed Food
Pest and Weed Control
Pesticides, Insecticides, and Herbicides
Plant Production, Agronomy
Quick-maturing vegetable cultivars
Rice Mill
School Meals
Soil Chemistry/Microbiology
Soil Sciences, Other
Soil and Water Conservation Research Unit (SWCRU)
Soil test
Spices, Herbs, Seasonings
State department of agriculture and food sciences
Type of Product
Veterinary Sciences
Vitamins and Minerals
Wood Science & Pulp/Paper Technology
Workers in the state department of agriculture and food sciences
Worker Protection

Answers to relevant questions.
What is Agriculture?
What type of Agriculture uses only one crop?
Why is agriculture important?
What is the process of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons?
What is food?
What Are Perennial Plants?
What's the difference between annual, biennial, and perennial plants?
How often should I water my annuals?
What is Biology?
What are the main branches of agriculture and food sciences?
How is agriculture and food sciences different from biology?
What are the different branches of biology?
How should agriculture and food sciences work be scheduled in the state?
What are the main branches of agriculture and food sciences?


Where is biology useful?
What is Biology?
What is a living thing?
What are the five kingdoms into which living beings are divided? Which group of living being is out of this classification?
Which are the beings that constitute the kingdom Monera?
Which are the beings that form the kingdom Protista?
Which are the beings that form the kingdom Fungi?
Which are the beings that form the kingdom Plantae? Are algae part of this kingdom?
Which are the beings that form the kingdom Animalia? What are the two big groups into which this kingdom is divided?
What are the nine phyla of the kingdom Animalia?
What are the two mains divisions of the chordate phylum?
What are the differences between vertebrates and the other chordates?
What are the five classes of vertebrates? To which of these do human beings belong?
How do you find out the number of chromosomes of an animal?
What are the main branches of agriculture and food sciences?
How is agriculture and food sciences different from biology?
What are the different branches of biology?
How should agriculture and food sciences work be scheduled in the state?
What is your favorite food?
What's your favorite brand?

Would you like to add anything?

Mail your expertise, products, services, details to:

Annotation or Definition
What is Agriculture?
Agriculture is also called farming is the cultivation of animals, plants, and other life forms for food, and other products used to sustain human life.
There are fifteen different types of agriculture.

Alley Cropping
Crop Rotation
High-Input Agriculture
Green House Farming
Low Input
Mult-crop Farming
Organic Farming
Polytunnel / Polyhouse farming
Polyvarietal Cultivation
Vertical Farming

What type of Agriculture uses only one crop?

Why is agriculture important?
It provides a source of food for the world

What is the process of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons?
Crop Rotation

What is food?
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

The listing of items included as foodstuffs include any substance intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans.
Here are further guidelines.
Nutrition and Public Health

State department of food and supplies

What Are Perennial Plants?
A perennial plant is a plant that lives for more than two years. Many perennials grow and bloom over spring and summer, then die back during fall and winter and regrow the following year from their roots. This is not the case with all perennials. Some have adapted to survive the fall and winter months without dying back to their roots.

Types of Perennials

Most botanists recognize five types of perennials. They include herbaceous, woody, monocarpic, deciduous, and evergreen. •Herbaceous perennials are typically grasses that grow in fire-prone areas and on prairies.
•Woody perennials are found all over the world and include large towering trees that take years to grow completely. •Monocarpic perennials are plants that flower and make seeds, then die. They are perennials because it takes them more than one year to complete this process.
•Deciduous perennials are plants that shed their leaves in the fall of the year.
•Evergreen perennials are those plants that live long lives and keep their foliage during the fall and winter months.

This red apple is the fruit of a woody perennial.

What's the difference between annual, biennial, and perennial plants?
A: An annual completes its entire life cycle in one growing season. Biennials complete their entire growing cycle in two years. The first year the biennial produces leaves the second year blossoms and seeds are produced then the biennial dies. A perennial has a life cycle that extends beyond three years.

How often should I water my annuals?
A: If the weather is hot, sunny or windy water the plants at least once a day; twice a day is even better, so long as the soil is dry to the touch. Do this until the plants have adjusted to their new surroundings, for about a week. After that, water thoroughly to a depth of 6 to 8 inches, once a week in cool weather and every three or four days in hot summer months. Never let your plants wilt; it will seriously weaken them.

State agriculture and food sciences digitization.

Forests are part of agriculture and food science department in the state.

An economic alliance of Kashmir Utter Pradesh, Kashmir Punjab, Kashmir Tibet, Kashmir Xingyang, Kashmir northwest frontier (Peshawar), Kashmir Karnataka, and Kashmir Maharashtra must be enhanced. An economic alliance of adjacent states and far-off states must be enhanced. There should be an alliance of Kashmir in Asia and Illinois in North America.

What are the main branches of agriculture and food sciences?
Agriculture and food sciences has branches like:
1. Botany (Plant Science)
2. Zoology (Animal Science)
3. Ecology
4. Evolution
5. Entomology
6. Genetics
7. Microbiology
8. Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
9. Paleontology
10. Taxonomy
11. Physiology
12. Cell biology/Cytology
13. Pesticides
14. Nurseries & Greenhouses
15. Fertilizers
16. Administrative issues
17. Irrigation
18. Grain warehouses
19. Soil Science
20. Grain Warehouse inspection program
21. Food Science
22. Slaughter of animals for food
23. Plant Protection
24. Radar Surveillance
What did you understand after reading these facts?

Where is biology useful?
Health care, agriculture and food sciences, public health engineering, and aerospace engineering.

Human beings are studies under the pretext of medicine or health care.

What is Biology?
Biology is the study of living things and their vital processes. Because biology covers such a broad area, it has been traditional to separate the study of plants (botany) from that of animals (zoology), and the study of structure of organisms (morphology) from that of function (physiology). Despite their apparent differences, all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles, so current practice tends to investigate those biological phenomena that all living things have in common. The advancement of knowledge and technology has resulted in further categorizations that include, but are far from restricted to: cell biology, population biology, ecology, genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, and physical anthropology.

What is a living thing?
Living things are made of cells.
Living things obtain and use energy.
Living things grow and develop.
Living things reproduce.
Living things respond to their environment.

What are the five kingdoms into which living beings are divided? Which group of living being is out of this classification?
The five kingdoms of living beings are the kingdom Monera, the kingdom Protista, the kingdom Fungi, the kingdom Plantae and the kingdom Animalia.

Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Animalia
Viruses are out of this classification and sometimes they are said to belong to their own kingdom, the kingdom Virus.

Which are the beings that constitute the kingdom Monera?
The kingdom Monera is the kingdom of the prokaryotes, composed of bacteria and archaebacteria.

Which are the beings that form the kingdom Protista?
The kingdom Protista comprises protozoans and algae.

Which are the beings that form the kingdom Fungi?
The kingdom Fungi is formed by fungi.

Which are the beings that form the kingdom Plantae? Are algae part of this kingdom?
The kingdom Plantae is composed of plants.
Algae are classified into the kingdom Protista and not into the kingdom Plantae (they are not plants).

Which are the beings that form the kingdom Animalia? What are the two big groups into which this kingdom is divided?
The kingdom Animalia is the animal kingdom. Commonly the kingdom Animalia is subdivided into invertebrates and vertebrates.

What are the nine phyla of the kingdom Animalia?
The nine phyla of the animal kingdom are: Porifera (poriferans), Cnidaria (cnidarians), Platyhelminthes (flatworms), Nematoda (roundworms), Annelida (annelids), Mollusca (molluscs), Arthropoda (arthropods), Echinodermata (echinoderms) and Chordata (chordates).

What are the two mains divisions of the chordate phylum? <
Chordates are divided into protochordates (cephalochordates and urochordates) and vertebrates.

What are the differences between vertebrates and the other chordates?
Vertebrates are different because they have a spinal column (vertebral column). In these animals the notochord of the embryonic stage is substituted by the vertebral column in adults.

What are the five classes of vertebrates? To which of these do human beings belong?
The five classes of vertebrates are: fishes (osteichthyes and chondrichthyes), amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Humans classify as mammals.

How do you find out the number of chromosomes of an animal?
Here are further guidelines.

Beef is the meat of cattle, such as Glan Cattle.

Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods including feedlots, free range, ranching, backgrounding and factory farming. Typically a pound of cooked beef needs 27 pounds of fodder, over 200 gallons of water and nearly 300 square feet of land.
Cattle Breeds
  1. Aberdeen-Angus

  2. Abigar

  3. Abondance

  4. Abyssian Highland Zebu

  5. Abyssian Shorthorned Zebu

  6. Aceh

  7. Achham

  8. Adamawa

  9. Aden

  10. Afghan

  11. Africander

  12. Africangus

  13. Agerolese

  14. Alambadi

  15. Ala-Tau

  16. Albanian

  17. Albanian Dwarf

  18. Alberes

  19. Albese

  20. Aleutian wild

  21. Alentejana

  22. Aliad Dinka

  23. Alistana-Sanabresa

  24. Alur

  25. American Angus

  26. American Beef Friesian

  27. American Breed

  28. American Brown Swiss

  29. American White Park

  30. Amerifax

  31. Amritmahal

  32. Anatolian Black

  33. Andalusian Black

  34. Andalusian Blond

  35. Andalusian Grey

  36. Angeln

  37. Angoni

  38. Ankina

  39. Ankole-Watusi

  40. Aosta

  41. Aosta Balck Pied

  42. Aosta Chestnut

  43. Aosta Red Pied

  44. Apulian Podolian

  45. Aracena

  46. Arado

  47. Argentine Crillo

  48. Argentine Friesian

  49. Armorican

  50. Arouquesa

  51. Arsi

  52. Asturian

  53. Atpadi Mahal

  54. Aubrac

  55. Aulie-Ata

  56. Aure et Saint-Girons

  57. Australian Braford

  58. Australian Brangus

  59. Australian Charbray

  60. Australain Commercial Dairy Cow

  61. Australain Friesian Sahiwal

  62. Australain Grey

  63. Australian Lowline

  64. Australian Milking Zebu

  65. Australian Shorthorn

  66. Australian White

  67. Austrian Simmental

  68. Austrian Yellow

  69. Avetonou

  70. Avilena

  71. Avilena-Black Iberian

  72. Aweil Dinka

  73. Ayrshire

  74. Azaouak

  75. Azebuado

  76. Azerbaijan Zebu

  77. Azores

  78. Bachaur

  79. Baggara

  80. Baggerbont

  81. Bahima

  82. Baila

  83. Bakosi

  84. Bakwiri

  85. Baladi

  86. Baltic Black Pied

  87. Bambara

  88. Bambawa

  89. Bambey

  90. Bami

  91. Banyo

  92. Baoule

  93. Bapedi

  94. Bargur

  95. Bari

  96. Baria (Vietnam)

  97. Baria (Madagascar)

  98. Barka

  99. Barotse

  100. Barra do Cuanzo

  101. Barrosa

  102. Barroso

  103. Barzona

  104. Bashi

  105. Basuto

  106. Batanes Black

  107. Batangas

  108. Batawana

  109. Bavenda

  110. Bazadais

  111. Bearnais

  112. Beefalo

  113. Beefmaker (US)

  114. Beefmaker (Aussie)

  115. Beefmaster

  116. Beef Shorthorn

  117. Beef Synthetic

  118. Beijing Black Pied

  119. Beiroa

  120. Beja

  121. Belgian Black Pied

  122. Belgian Blue

  123. Belgian Red

  124. Belgian Red Pied

  125. Belgian White-and-Red

  126. Belmont Red

  127. Belted Galloway

  128. Belted Welsh

  129. Bengali

  130. Bericiana

  131. Berrendas

  132. Bestuzhev

  133. Betizuak

  134. Bhagnari

  135. Biamal

  136. Black Baldy

  137. Black Forest

  138. Black Iberian

  139. Blanco Orejinergo

  140. Blauw and Blauwbont

  141. Bleu du Nord

  142. Blonde d'Aquitaine

  143. Blonde du Sud-Ouest

  144. Bolivian Criollo

  145. Bonsmara

  146. Boran

  147. Borgou

  148. Boreno Zebu

  149. Braford

  150. Bragado do Sorraia

  151. Braganca

  152. Brahman

  153. Brahmin

  154. Brahorn

  155. Bralers

  156. Bra-Maine

  157. Brahmousin

  158. Brandrood IJsselvee

  159. Brangus

  160. Bra-Swiss

  161. Bravon

  162. Brazilian Dairy Hybrid

  163. Brazilian Gir

  164. Brazilian Polled

  165. Brazilian Zebu

  166. Breton Black Pied

  167. British Dane

  168. British Friesian

  169. British Holstein

  170. British Polled Hereford

  171. British White

  172. Brown Atlas

  173. Brownsind

  174. Bulgarian Brown

  175. Bulgarian Red

  176. Bulgarian Simmental

  177. Burlina

  178. Burmese

  179. Burwash

  180. Busa

  181. Bushuev

  182. Butana

  183. Byelorussian Red

  184. Byelorussian Synthetic

  185. Cabannina

  186. Cachena

  187. Caiua

  188. Calabrian

  189. Cadeano

  190. Caldelana

  191. Calvana

  192. Camargue

  193. Cambodian

  194. Canadien

  195. Canary Island

  196. Canchim

  197. Cape Bon Blond

  198. Caracu

  199. Carazebu

  200. Cardena

  201. Carpathian Brown

  202. Carrena

  203. Casanareno

  204. Cash

  205. Casina

  206. Castille-Leon

  207. Caucasian

  208. Caucasian Brown

  209. Central American Dairy Criollo

  210. Central Asian Zebu

  211. Central Russian Black Pied

  212. Chagga

  213. Chan-Doc

  214. Chaouia

  215. Cahqueno

  216. Charbray

  217. Charford

  218. Charolais

  219. Charollandrais

  220. Char-Swiss

  221. Charwiss

  222. Cheju

  223. Chernigov

  224. Chesi

  225. Cheurfa

  226. Chiangus

  227. Chianina

  228. Chiford

  229. Chimaine

  230. Chinampo

  231. Chinese Black-and-White

  232. Chino Santandereano

  233. Chittagong

  234. Cholistani

  235. Cildir

  236. Cinisara

  237. Colombian Criollo

  238. Coopelso 93

  239. Cornigliese

  240. Corriente

  241. Corsican

  242. Costeno con Cuernos

  243. Cretan Lowland

  244. Cretan Mountain

  245. Croatian Red

  246. Cuban Criollo

  247. Cuban Zebu

  248. Cukurova

  249. Cuprem Hybrid

  250. Curraleiro

  251. Cutchi

  252. Cyprus

  253. Czech Pied

  254. Dabieshan

  255. Dacca-Faridpur

  256. Dagestan Mountains

  257. Dairy Gir

  258. Dairy Shorthorn

  259. Dairy Synthetic

  260. Dairy Zebu of Uberaba

  261. Dajjal

  262. Damara

  263. Damascus

  264. Damietta

  265. Danakil

  266. Dangi

  267. Danish Red Pied

  268. Danish Blue-and-White

  269. Danish Jersey

  270. Danish Red

  271. Danish Red Pied

  272. Dashtiara

  273. Dengchuan

  274. Deoni

  275. Devarakota

  276. Devni

  277. Devon

  278. Dexter

  279. Dexter-Kerry

  280. Dhanni

  281. Diali

  282. Didinga

  283. Dishti

  284. Djakore

  285. Dneiper

  286. Doayo

  287. Dobrogea

  288. Dongola

  289. Doran

  290. Dorna

  291. Dortyol

  292. Drakensberger

  293. Droughtmaster

  294. Dun Galloway

  295. Dutch Belted

  296. Dutch Black Pied

  297. East African Zebu

  298. East Anatolian Red

  299. East Anatolian Red and White

  300. Eastern Nuer

  301. East Finnish

  302. East Friesian

  303. East Macedonian

  304. Ecuador Criollo

  305. Egyptian

  306. Enderby Island Shorthorn

  307. Epirus

  308. Estonian Black Pied

  309. Estonian Native

  310. Estonian Red

  311. Ethiopian Boran

  312. Faeroes

  313. Fellata

  314. Ferrandais

  315. Fighting Bull

  316. Finnish

  317. Finnish Ayrshire

  318. Flemish

  319. Flemish Red

  320. Florida Scrub

  321. Fogera

  322. Fort Cross

  323. Franqueiro

  324. Frati

  325. French Brown

  326. French Friesian

  327. Friesland

  328. Frijolillo

  329. FRS

  330. Gacko

  331. Gado da Terra

  332. Galician Blond

  333. Galloway

  334. Gambian N'Dama

  335. Gaolao

  336. Garfagnina

  337. Garre

  338. Gasara

  339. Gascon

  340. Gelbvieh

  341. Georgian Mountain

  342. German Angus

  343. German Black Pied

  344. German Black Pied Dairy

  345. German Brown

  346. German Red

  347. German Red Peid

  348. German Shorthorn

  349. German Simmental

  350. Ghana Sanga

  351. Ghana Shorthorn

  352. Gir

  353. Giriama

  354. Girolando

  355. Glan

  356. Glan-Donnersberg

  357. Gloucester

  358. Gobra

  359. Gole

  360. Golpayegani

  361. Goomsur

  362. Gorbatov Red

  363. Goryn

  364. Grati

  365. Greater Caucasus

  366. Greek Shorthorn

  367. Greek Steppe

  368. Grey Alpine

  369. Greyman

  370. Groningen Whitehead

  371. Grossetana

  372. Guadiana Spotted

  373. Gaunling

  374. Guelma

  375. Guernsey

  376. Gujamavu

  377. Guzera

  378. Guzerando

  379. Hainan

  380. Halhin

  381. Hallikar

  382. Hariana

  383. Harton

  384. Harz

  385. Hatton

  386. Hawaiian wild

  387. Hays Converter

  388. Hereford

  389. Hereland

  390. Herens

  391. Highland

  392. Hinterland

  393. Hissar

  394. Holgus

  395. Holmonger

  396. Holstein

  397. Horro

  398. Hrbinecky

  399. Huangpi

  400. Huertana

  401. Humbi

  402. Hungarian Grey

  403. Hungarian Pied

  404. Hungarfries

  405. Ibage

  406. Icelandic

  407. Illawarra

  408. Ilocos

  409. Iloilo

  410. Improved Rodopi

  411. Indo-Brazilian Zebu

  412. Ingessana

  413. Inkuku

  414. INRA 9

  415. Iraqi

  416. Irish Moiled

  417. Iskar

  418. Israeli Friesian

  419. Istoben

  420. Istrian

  421. Italian Brown

  422. Italian Friesian

  423. Italian Red Pied

  424. Jamaica Black

  425. Jamica Brahman

  426. Jamica Hope

  427. Jamica Red

  428. Japanese Black

  429. Japanese Brown

  430. Japanese Native

  431. Japanese Poll

  432. Japanese Shorthorn

  433. Jarmelista

  434. Jaulan

  435. Javanese

  436. Javanese Ongole

  437. Javanese Zebu

  438. Jellicut

  439. Jem-Jem Zebu

  440. Jenubi

  441. Jerdi

  442. Jersey

  443. Jersian

  444. Jersind

  445. Jiddu

  446. Jijjiga Zebu

  447. Jinnan

  448. Jochberg

  449. Jotko

  450. Kabota

  451. Kabyle

  452. Kachcha Siri

  453. Kalakheri

  454. Kalmyk

  455. Kamasia

  456. Kamba

  457. Kamdhino

  458. Kandahari

  459. Kanem

  460. Kangayam

  461. Kaningan

  462. Kankrej

  463. Kaokoveld

  464. Kappiliyan

  465. Kapsiki

  466. Karamajong

  467. Karan Fries

  468. Karan Swiss

  469. Katerini

  470. Kavirondo

  471. Kazkh

  472. Kazkh Whitehead

  473. Kedah-Kelantan

  474. Kenana

  475. Kenkatha

  476. Kenran

  477. Kenya Boran

  478. Kenya Zebu

  479. Kerry

  480. Keteku

  481. Khamala

  482. Kherigarh

  483. Khevsurian

  484. Khillari

  485. Kholmogory

  486. Khurasani

  487. Kigezi

  488. Kikuyu

  489. Kilara

  490. Kilis

  491. Kinniya

  492. Kisantu

  493. Kochi

  494. Kolubara

  495. Konari

  496. Korean Native

  497. Kostroma

  498. Kravarsky

  499. Krishnagiri

  500. Krishina Valley

  501. Kuchinoshima

  502. Kumamoto

  503. Kumauni

  504. Kurdi

  505. Kurgan

  506. Kuri

  507. Kyoga

  508. Ladakhi

  509. Lagune

  510. Lakenvelder

  511. Las Bela

  512. Latuka

  513. Latvian Blue

  514. Latvian Brown

  515. La Velasquez

  516. Lavinia

  517. Lebanese

  518. Lebedin

  519. Lesser Caucasus

  520. Liberian Dwarf

  521. Libyan

  522. Lim

  523. Limiana

  524. Limousin

  525. Limpurger

  526. Lincoln Red

  527. Lithuanian Red

  528. Llanero

  529. Lobi

  530. Local Indian Dairy

  531. Lohani

  532. Longhorn

  533. Lourdais

  534. Lowline

  535. Lucanian

  536. Lucerna

  537. Lugware

  538. Luing

  539. Luxi

  540. Macedonian Blue

  541. Madagascar Zebu

  542. Madaripur

  543. Madura

  544. Magal

  545. Maine-Anjou

  546. Makaweli

  547. Malawi Zebu

  548. Malnad Gidda

  549. Malselv

  550. Maltese cow

  551. Malvi

  552. Mampati

  553. Manapari

  554. Mandalong Special

  555. Mangwato

  556. Mantiqueira

  557. Marchigiana

  558. Maremmana

  559. Marianas

  560. Marinhoa

  561. Maronesa

  562. Maryuti

  563. Masai

  564. Mashona

  565. Matabele

  566. Maure

  567. Mauritius Creole

  568. Mazandarani

  569. Mazury

  570. Meknes Black Pied

  571. Menufi

  572. Merauke

  573. Mere

  574. Mertolenga

  575. Messaoria

  576. Metohija Red

  577. Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  578. Mewati

  579. Mezzalina

  580. Mhaswald

  581. Milking Devon

  582. Milking Shorthorn

  583. Mingrelian Red

  584. Minhota

  585. Miniature Hereford

  586. Miniature Zebu

  587. Minocran

  588. Mirandesa

  589. Mishima

  590. Modenese

  591. Modicana

  592. Moi

  593. Monchina

  594. Mongalla

  595. Mongolian

  596. Montafon

  597. Montbeliard

  598. Morang

  599. Morenas del Noroeste

  600. Morucha

  601. Mottled Hill

  602. Mozambique Angoni

  603. Mpwapwa

  604. Munshigunj

  605. Murcian

  606. Murgese

  607. Murle

  608. Murnau-Werdenfels

  609. Murray Grey

  610. Muris

  611. Muturu

  612. Nagori

  613. Nakali

  614. Nama

  615. Nandi

  616. Nantais

  617. Nanyang

  618. Ndagu

  619. N'Dama

  620. N'Dama Sanga

  621. Nejdi

  622. Nelore

  623. Nepalese Hill

  624. N'Gabou

  625. Nganda

  626. N'Gaoundere

  627. Nguni

  628. Nilotic

  629. Nimari

  630. Nkedi

  631. Nkone

  632. Normande

  633. Normanzu

  634. North Bangladesh

  635. North Finnish

  636. North Malawi Zebu

  637. North Somali

  638. Norwegian Red

  639. Nuba Mountain

  640. Nuer

  641. Nuras

  642. Nyoro

  643. Okayama

  644. Ongole

  645. Oran

  646. Orapa

  647. Oulmes Blond

  648. Ovambo

  649. Pabna

  650. Pajuna

  651. Palmera

  652. Pakota Red

  653. Pantaneiro

  654. Pantelleria

  655. Paphos

  656. Parthenias

  657. Pechora

  658. Pee Wee

  659. Peloponnesus

  660. Perijanero

  661. Pester

  662. Philippine Native

  663. Piedmont

  664. Pie Rouge de l'Est

  665. Pie Rouge des Plaines

  666. Pinzgauer

  667. Pinzhou

  668. Pisana

  669. Pitangueiras

  670. Polish Black-and-White Lowland

  671. Polish Red-and-White Lowland

  672. Polish Simmental

  673. Polled Charolais

  674. Polled Gir

  675. Polled Guzera

  676. Polled Hereford

  677. Polled Jersey

  678. Polled Lincoln Red

  679. Polled Nelore

  680. Polled Shorthorn (US)

  681. Polled Simmental

  682. Polled Sussex

  683. Polled Welsh Black

  684. Polled Zebu

  685. Poll Friesian

  686. Poll Hereford

  687. Poll Shorthorn (Aussie)

  688. Pontremolese

  689. Ponwar

  690. Porto Amboim

  691. Posavina

  692. Preti

  693. Prewakwa

  694. Puerto Rican

  695. Pul-Mbor

  696. Punganur

  697. Purnea

  698. Pyrenean

  699. Qinchuan

  700. Quasah

  701. Ramgarhi

  702. Ramo Grande

  703. Rana

  704. Randall Lineback

  705. Ranger

  706. Rath

  707. Raya-Azebo

  708. Red and White Friesian

  709. Red and White Holstein

  710. Red Angus

  711. Red Belted Galloway

  712. Red Bororo

  713. Red Brangus

  714. Red Chianina

  715. Red Desert

  716. Red Galloway

  717. Red Kandhari

  718. Red Poll

  719. Red Sindhi

  720. Red Steppe

  721. Reggiana

  722. Regus

  723. Rendena

  724. Renitelo

  725. Retinta

  726. Rhaetian Grey

  727. Rio Limon Dairy Criollo

  728. Riopardense

  729. Rodopi

  730. Rojhan

  731. Romagnola

  732. Roman

  733. Romana Red

  734. Romanian Brown

  735. Romanian Red

  736. Romanian Simmental

  737. Romanian Steppe

  738. Romosinuano

  739. Russian Black Pied

  740. Russian Brown

  741. Russian Simmental

  742. Rustaqi

  743. RX3

  744. Sabre

  745. Sahford

  746. Sahiwal

  747. Saidi

  748. Salers

  749. Salorn

  750. Sanhe

  751. San Martinero

  752. Santa Gertrudis

  753. Sarabi

  754. Sardinian

  755. Sardinian Brown

  756. Sardo-Modicana

  757. Savinja Grey

  758. Sayaguesa

  759. Schwyz-Zeboid

  760. Seferihisar

  761. Senepol

  762. Sengologa

  763. Serbo-Cro Pied

  764. Serbo-Cro Pinzau

  765. Serere

  766. Seshaga

  767. Shahabadi

  768. Shakhansurri

  769. Shandong

  770. Sharabi

  771. Sheko

  772. Shendi

  773. Shetland

  774. Shimane

  775. Shkodra

  776. Shuwa

  777. Siberian Black Pied

  778. Siberian White

  779. Siboney

  780. Simbrah

  781. Simford (Australia)

  782. Simford (Israel)

  783. Simmalo

  784. Simmental

  785. Sinhala

  786. Siri

  787. Sistani

  788. Slovakian Pied

  789. Slovakian Pinzgau

  790. Slovenian Brown

  791. Slovenian Podolian

  792. Small East African Zebu

  793. Socotra

  794. Sokoto Gudali

  795. Somali

  796. Somba

  797. Sonkheri

  798. Son Valley

  799. South African Brown Swiss

  800. South Anatolian Red

  801. South China Zebu

  802. South Devon

  803. Southern Tswana

  804. Southern Ukrainian

  805. South Malawi Zebu

  806. Spanish Brown

  807. Spreca

  808. Sudanese Fulani

  809. Suia

  810. Suisbu

  811. Suk

  812. Suksun

  813. Sunkuma

  814. Sunandini

  815. Sussex

  816. Swedish Ayrshire

  817. Swedish Friesian

  818. Swedish Jersey

  819. Swedish Mountain

  820. Swedish Polled

  821. Swedish Red-and-White

  822. Swiss Black Pied

  823. Swiss Brown

  824. Sychevka

  825. Sykia

  826. Tabapua

  827. Tagil

  828. Taino

  829. Taiwan Zebu

  830. Tajma

  831. Tamankaduwa

  832. Tambov Red

  833. Tanzanian Zebu

  834. Tarai

  835. Tarentaise

  836. Tarina

  837. Taylor

  838. Telemark

  839. Texas Longhorn

  840. Thai

  841. Thailand Fighting cow

  842. Thanh-Hoa

  843. Thari

  844. Thatparkar

  845. Thessaly

  846. Thibar

  847. Thillari

  848. Tibetan

  849. Tinima

  850. Tinos

  851. Tonga

  852. Toposa

  853. Toro

  854. Toronke

  855. Tottori

  856. Toubou

  857. Toupouri

  858. Transylvanian Pinzgua

  859. Tropical

  860. Tropical Dairy Cattle

  861. Tropicana

  862. TSSHZ-1

  863. Tawana

  864. Tudanca

  865. Tuli

  866. Tuni

  867. Turino

  868. Tukana

  869. Turkish Brown

  870. Turkish Grey Steppe

  871. Turkmen

  872. Tux-Zillertal

  873. Tuy-Hoa

  874. Tyrol Grey

  875. Uganda Zebu

  876. Ujumqin

  877. Ukrainian Grey

  878. Ukrainian Whiteheaded

  879. Umblachery

  880. Ural Black Pied

  881. Valdres

  882. Vale and Vaalbonte

  883. Vaynol

  884. Vendee Marsh

  885. Venezuela Criollo

  886. Venezuelan Zebu

  887. Verinesa

  888. Vianesa

  889. Victoria

  890. Vietnamese

  891. Villard-de-Lans

  892. Vogelsberg

  893. Volnsk

  894. Voderwald

  895. Vosges

  896. Wakwa

  897. Watusi (USA)

  898. Welsh Black

  899. Wenshan

  900. West African Dwarf Shorthorn

  901. West African Shorthorn

  902. West Finnish

  903. West Macedonian

  904. Whitebred Shorthorn

  905. White Caceres

  906. White Fulani

  907. White Galloway

  908. White Nile

  909. White Park

  910. White Sange

  911. White Welsh

  912. Witrik

  913. Wodabe

  914. Wokalup

  915. Xinjiang

  916. Xuwen

  917. Yacumeno

  918. Yakut

  919. Yanbian

  920. Yaroslavl

  921. Yellow Franconian

  922. Yemeni Zebu

  923. Yunnan Zebu

  924. Yurino

  925. Zambia Angoni

  926. Zanzibar Zebu

  927. Zaobei

  928. Zavot

  929. Znamensk
Here are further guidelines.

Farm Animals
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.

Raising animals (animal husbandry) is a component of modern agriculture. It has been practiced in many cultures since the transition to farming from hunter-gather lifestyles. You can find lots of interesting animal information about your favourite farm animals. You can discover and learn what life is like on the farm for sheep, pigs, cows, goats, ducks, llamas, chickens and horses.

Farm animals are bred for many purposes. Chickens give us our eggs, Cows and Goats provide us with nutritious milk. Different breeds of sheep produce many kinds of wool fibres which are made into clothing.

Horses are used as working animals, sports and leisure activities. Cattle Chickens Sheep

Poultry farming
What is poultry?
The term poultry actually refers to a variety of bird types raised on farms for food.

What are various examples?
Ostriches, and many more.

Chicken Facts

Scientific classification

What Is a Chicken?
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Phasianinae
Genus: Gallus
Species: G. gallus
Subspecies: G. g. domesticus
Scientific Name: Gallus Gallus
Common name: Chicken
Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus
Color: Red, Black, Brown, White, Yellow, Orange
Life Span: 2 - 4 years
Lifestyle: Flock
Top Speed: 10km/h (6mph)
Weight: 1kg - 3kg (2.2lbs - 6.6lbs)
Type: Bird
Diet: Omnivore
Main Prey: Seeds, Fruit, Insects, Berries
Predators: Human, Fox, Raccoon
Size (L): 30cm - 45cm (11.8in - 17.7in)
Wingspan: 45cm - 60cm (17.7in - 23.6in)
Chicken Breeds:
  1. Ancona

  2. Andalusian

  3. Appenzeller Spitzhauben

  4. Araucana

  5. Asil

  6. Australorps

  7. Barnevelder

  8. Booted Bantam

  9. Brahma

  10. Buttercup

  11. Campine

  12. Cochin

  13. Cornish

  14. Cream Legbar

  15. Croad Langshan

  16. Delaware

  17. Derbyshire Redcap

  18. Dominique

  19. Dorking

  20. Dutch Bantam

  21. Ex-Battery Hen

  22. Faverolle

  23. Fayoumi

  24. Friesian

  25. Frizzle

  26. Gingernut Ranger

  27. Gold Legbar

  28. Hamburgh (or Holland Fowl)

  29. Houdan

  30. Hybrid

  31. Ixworth

  32. Japanese Bantam

  33. Jersey Giant

  34. La Fleche

  35. Lakenvelder

  36. Leghorn (Non-White)

  37. Leghorn (White)

  38. Lincolnshire Buff

  39. Malay

  40. Marans

  41. Marsh Daisy

  42. Minorca

  43. Miss Pepperpot

  44. Modern Game

  45. Naked Neck

  46. Nankin

  47. New Hampshire Red

  48. Norfolk Grey

  49. Old English Game

  50. Old English Pheasant Fowl

  51. Orpington

  52. Pekin Bantam

  53. Plymouth Rock

  54. Plymouth Rock Bantam

  55. Poland

  56. Rhode Island Red

  57. Rhodebar

  58. Rosecomb Bantam

  59. Scots Dumpy

  60. Scots Grey

  61. Sebright

  62. Serama

  63. Silkie

  64. Speckledy

  65. Sultan

  66. Sussex

  67. Sussex Bantam

  68. Vorwerk

  69. Welbar

  70. Welsummer

  71. Wyandotte
Related Animals Duck Duck
Guinea Fowl
A chicken is a bird. One of the features that differentiate it from most other birds is that it has a comb and two wattles. The comb is the red appendage on the top of the head, and the wattles are the two appendages under the chin. These are secondary sexual characteristics and are more prominent in the male.

The chicken has two legs and two wings, a fact that influences housing and management. Domestic chickens have essentially lost the ability to fly. Heavy breeds used for meat production cannot do more than flap their wings and jump to a little higher level or move more rapidly along the ground. The lighter-bodied birds can fly short distances, and some can fly over relatively high fences. The feet and shank portions of the legs have scales.

Respiration rate is higher in chickens than in larger animals. In general, it can be said that the smaller the kind of bird the faster it breathes. For example, a hummingbird breathes more times a minute than a chicken. The male chicken breathes about 18 to 21 times a minute and the female about 31 to 37 times when they are not under stress.

The heart beat of chickens is rather fast, being about 286 times a minute in males and 312 in females in a resting condition.

Digestion rate is somewhat rapid in chickens. It varies from 2 1/2 to 25 hours for passage of food depending on whether the digestion tract is full, partially full, or empty when feed is ingested.

The chicken's temperature is about 107 degrees to 107.5 degrees F.

Chickens are hatched, not born in the truest sense of the word.

Chickens are covered with feathers but have a few vestigial hairs scattered over the body. The average consumer does not see these hairs, because they are singed off in the processing plant. The chicken has a beak (or bill) and does not have teeth. Any mastication occurs in the gizzard. Many commercial poultry producers do not provide grit to their chickens, because they feed a ground feed of fine meal consistency that can be digested by the bird's digestive juices.

The chicken has pneumatic bones, making its body lighter for flying, if it had not lost the ability to do so.

There are 13 air sacs in the chicken's body, again to make the body lighter, and they are a functioning part of the respiratory system.

Chickens have comparatively short life spans. Some live to be 10 to 15 years old, but they are the exception, not the rule. In commercial egg production, birds are about 18 months old when they are replaced by new, young stock. It takes close to six months for a female chicken to mature sexually and start laying eggs. Then, they are kept for 12 to 14 months of egg production. After that their economic value declines rapidly, so they are disposed of when they are about 18 months old.

Chickens have both white (breast) and dark (legs, thighs, back, and neck) meat. The wings contain both light and dark fibers.

There are approximately 175 varieties of chickens grouped into 12 classes and approximately 60 breeds. A class is a group of breeds originating in the same geographical area. The names themselves — Asiatic, American, Mediterranean, and so on — indicate the region where the breeds originated.

Breed means a group which possesses a given set of physical features, such as body shape, skin color, carriage or station, and number of toes. Variety is a category of breed and is based on feather color, comb, or presence of a beard and muff. Thus, the Plymouth Rock may be Barred, White, Buff, or one of several other colors. The Rhode Island Red may have either a single or rose comb. In each case, the body shape and physical features should be identical. Breed and variety tell little about the qualities of good producing stock.

Strain, however, does. A strain is a group or breeding population within a variety or cross that has been bred and developed by a person or organization to possess certain desirable characteristics. Many commercial strains exist, such as Babcock, DeKalb, Hyline, and Shaver, that have been bred for specific purposes.

Chickens are classified by sex and age, too. Although these terms tend to vary considerably, depending upon whether they are being applied to exhibitions, or commercial poultry production. Cockerel is a male chicken under one year of age; cock or rooster is a male more than one year old; pullet is a female under one year, and hen is a female over one year of age. When chicks are first hatched, they may be separated by sexes and are then called sexed chicks. If they have not been separated, they are known as straight-run chicks.

In market terms, a broiler or fryer is a young meat-type chicken that can be cooked tender by broiling or frying and usually weighing between 2 1/2 and 3 1/2 pounds. A roaster is a young meat-type chicken that can be cooked tender by roasting and usually weighing 4 pounds or more. A stewing chicken, hen, or fowl is a mature female chicken, often the by-product of egg production, with meat less tender than that of a roaster and can be cooked tender by stewing or a similar method.

White Leghorn Chicken Hen

White Leghorn Chicken Rooster

White Leghorn Chicken

How are your chickens raised? On pasture, indoors, confined? Are they caged?
Are your hens force molted?
What are your hens fed?
How much time do your hens spend outdoors each day?
Are your hens given antibiotics?
Here are further guidelines.

What is Botany?
Botany is the scientific study of plants.

How are plants classified?
What is the kingdom classification of plants?
What is plant classification according to how they reproduce?
What are bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms?
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.

What should you know about rice?
What is rice?
Why grow rice?
What is the scientific classification of rice?
Are you ready to grow rice?
In what month should you prepare soil to grow rice?
What areas have been demarcated to grow rice in the state?
How should you prepare the soil?
What are various methods to grow rice?
Should you utilize a transplant method or non-transplant method to grow rice?
How many workers are skilled in this type of work?
What type of rice has the shortest growth cycle?
What are the rice seasons?
What are the organizations of the rice plant in World?
Are there development projects?
How do you start rice mill?
Rice mill and rice plantation-What's the difference?
What should you know about crops?
What should you grow?
When should you place the seeds in the field?
How should you place the seeds in the field?
Should you throw seeds randomly on the field or place a few seeds at constant distance?
How deep should the seeds be placed?
How should you prepare the field?
What type of fertilizers, organic manure, sulphur treatment should be used?
How should post-harvest management be done?
What should be the yield per hactare of this crop?
What services are required in the pre-harvest period?
When and how are seeds sown?
When is this crop harvested?
What do you understand by harvest?
When should you harvest?
How was it harvested?
How is it harvested?
What are the international advanced technological practices?
How is post-harvest management done?
How should post-harvest management be done?


What is rice?
Why grow rice?
What is the scientific classification of rice?
Where is rice grown?
How is rice grown?
Does rice grow at high altitudes?
Land Preparation
Quality Seeds
Water management in irrigated lowland rice
Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM)
How does rice grow?
Pre Planting Phase
Early Vegetative Phase
Late Vegetative Phase
Reproductive phase
Ripening Phase
Perennial rice
Rice Milling
Rice Storage
Byproducts and their utilization
Rice Recipes

Where do we go from here?
Types of rice Rice production
Fill in the Blanks
Comparison of rice to other major staple foods
Kinds of Rice Rice Plant Rice Growth Uses for Rice Rice Recipe
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Growing Paddy Rice
4.3 Rice Growth Stages
4.4 Irrigation water need of paddy rice
4.5 Irrigation scheduling of paddy rice
How to Grow Rice:
Rice Anatomy
Q01: Who grows rice?
Q02: Is it true that rice is grown on all continents?
Q03: Can rice be grown in cold __________?
Q04: Can rice be grown in warm __________?
Q05: Does rice grow at high altitudes?
Q06: Why is rice so popular as a food?
Q07: What nutrients can you get by eating rice?
Q08: Who eats rice? How do these figures break down by region?
Q09: Why is there more rice in Asia than in other parts of the world?
Q10: Is there enough rice?
Q11: What do you mean by food security?
Q12: Who is the biggest exporter of rice?
Q13: Is rice eaten at every meal?
Q14: Do people ever get bored eating the same thing all the time?
Q15: Now that there are pizza and hamburger fast-food restaurants almost everywhere, are people eating less rice than before?
Q16: What are the different ways rice can be served?
Q17: How is rice normally cooked?
Q18: Is it true that rice can be made into a drink?
Q19: Why is rice added in beer-making?
Q20: Is it possible to buy a book of rice recipes?
Q21: What do you refer to as "aromatic rice"?
Q22: What is a basmati rice?
Q23: What is brown rice?
Q24: What is glutinous rice?
Q25: What about jasmine rice?
Q26: What do you refer to as parboiled or converted rice?
Q27: What is Texmati rice?
Q28: What is Valencia rice?
Q29: Is rice traded on commodity markets?
Q30: About three billion people depend on rice for their survival. What needs to be done to ensure that there will be enough rice for everyone in the coming years?
Q31: Why is there a need to dry the paddy or rough rice?
What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘rice’?
What rice dishes do you like?
Which is better, rice or potatoes?
What can you do with rice?
Do you like creamy rice pudding?
Japanese people mix tea with rice. What do you think of this?
Which ________ grows the world’s tastiest rice?
Do you prefer white rice or brown rice?
What’s your favourite way to prepare rice?
What part does rice play in your culture?
Is using a rice cooker the best way to cook rice?
What images do you have of rice paddies?
What things can you do with rice paper?
What seasonings and spices go best with rice?
What do you know about how rice grows?
What do you know about the nutritional value of rice?
What would you tell someone about rice who knew nothing about it?
What would the world do if rice suddenly disappeared?

What is Zoology?
Zoology is the study of animal life. It covers areas ranging from the structure of organisms to the subcellular unit of life. Some zoologists are interested in the biology of particular groups of animals. Others are concerned with the structure and function of animal bodies. Still others study how new animals are formed and how their characteristics are passed on from one generation to another. Zoologists study the interactions of animals with one another and their environments, and the significance of the behavior of animals.

Zoology is both descriptive and analytical. It can be approached either as a basic science or as an applied science. A worker in basic zoology is interested in knowledge of animals for its own sake without consideration of the direct application of the information gained. In contrast, workers in applied zoology are interested in information which will directly benefit humans; medicine is an example.

What is an animal?
How do you find out the species, genus, family, order, class, phylum (division), and kingdom of an animal?

How are animals classified?
What is the kingdom classification of animals?
What types of animals should you focus on?

Animals for human food as per culture and religion.
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.

How long do sheep usually live?
What's the difference between sheep and goats?
What's the difference between a sheep and a lamb?
Why don't most sheep have tails?
Why do sheep follow each other to slaughter?
What do sheep see, hear, and smell?
Do all rams have horns?
Why do rams butt?

Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a younger sheep as a lamb.

Scientific classification
Taxonomy of sheep
Classification Scientific Name Common Terminology
Kingdom Animalia Animal
Phylum Chordata Vertabrae (has spinal cord)
Sub-phylum Vertibrata Vertabrae (has spinal cord)
Class Mammalia Mammal (nurses young)
Order Ungulata Hoofed animal
Sub-order Artiodactyla Even toed
Family Bovidae Hollow horns
Sub-family Caprinae Sheep and goats
Genus Ovis Sheep
Species aries Domestic sheep
Binomial name
Ovis aries

Vital signs

Vital signs are measures of various physiological statistics. A sheep's vital signs can help determine if it is sick or in distress.
Sign Range
Body temperature 102-103°F
Heart rate 60-90 beats/minute
Respiration 12-20 breaths/minute
Here are further guidelines.

Pesticides, Insecticides, and Herbicides
Where do I find information about fertilizers?
Where can I find information about registering a pesticide?
Where can I find information about pesticide establishment registration and reporting?
Where can I find information about bulk repackaging of pesticides?
Where can I find information about custom blending of pesticides?
Where can I find information about the transportation of pesticides?
Here are further guidelines.

Apple varieties
What should you know about an apple tree?
When are various apples harvested?
What foods can you make from raw apples?
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.

Dairy farming
Common species
Bovine Dairy Farms
Hand milking
Vacuum bucket milking
Milking pipeline
Milking parlors
Herringbone and parallel parlors
Rotary parlors
Automatic milker take-off
Fully automated robotic milking
History of milk preservation methods
Milking operation
Management of the herd
Dairy cattle

Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows or milk cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made. Dairy cows generally are of the species Bos taurus.

Historically, there was little distinction between dairy cattle and beef cattle, with the same stock often being used for both meat and milk production.

    Worldwide Animal waste from large cattle dairies Use of hormones Animal welfare


Potato field

Flowers of a potato plant
What should you know about potatoes?

The Potato Plant and Tubers
Potato Plant Growth
Growth Stages
Tuber Initiation and Growth
Tuber Quality
Storing Potatoes
Potato Recipes
Potato Nutrition Information Table
The part of the potato plant we eat is called the tuber, which is actually an enlarged underground stem. Each plant will produce multiple tubers. Potato tubers come in a variety of colors, but most common are red and white. Their shape can be round, oblong, flattened, or elongated.

An identifying feature of potato tubers is their "eyes," which are small nodes with buds. If placed in a warm location the buds will sprout. If tubers are exposed to light, the buds will turn green as well as the tuber itself.

Potato plants are bushy with dark green, compound leaves that resemble those of its relative, the tomato. The plant can grow up to 3 feet tall.

Potato plants have dark green, broad, compound leaves with oval leaflets.

A good way to tell potato and tomatoes apart is by the scent of their leaves. Tomato leaves give off a strong, pungent scent while potato leaves lack a distict smell. Also, potato leaflets are slightly wider at the base of the leaflet and darker green in color compared to tomato leaflets.

Potato plants tend to flower more in regions with long cool, moist growing seasons. The flowers are typically white with a yellow enlongated center.

What is the best variety of potato?
All of them! If you are looking for a specific outcome like solid slices for Scalloped Potatoes, a waxy potato (red or white skinned) is recommended. If you like smooth mashed potatoes we suggest starting with a floury (baking) potato.

How does a potato grow?
A potato plant is a vine that grows above ground with tubers that grow from the roots under ground.

What is the green coloring on the potato skin?
The green on the skin of a potato is the build-up of a chemical called Solanine. It is a natural reaction to the potato being exposed to too much light. Solanine produces a bitter taste and if eaten in large quantity can cause illness, this is unlikely, however, because of the bitter taste. If there is slight greening, cut away the green portions of the potato skin before cooking and eating.

Why do potatoes grow sprouts?
Sprouts are a sign that the potato is trying to grow. Cut the sprouts away before cooking or eating the potato. To reduce sprouting, store potatoes in a cool, dry, dark location that is well ventilated.

Why do potatoes turn black or gray when cooked?
When potatoes are stored at too cold of a temperature they can turn black or gray when cooked. To keep this from happening, store potatoes at a temperature between 45ºF and 55ºF. We do not recommend storing your potatoes in the refrigerator, but if you do, letting the potato warm gradually to room temperature before cooking can reduce the discoloration.

In what month should you prepare the soil?
Plant direct in field/garden where they are to grow.
Plant tuber. Best planted at soil temperatures between 50°F and 86°F.
Space plants: 12 - 16 inches apart
Harvest in 15-20 weeks. Dig carefully, avoid damaging the potatoes.

Potatoes do best in soil with a pH ranging from 5.2-6.8. Alkaline soil will tend to make many varieties get scabby. Potatoes also respond to calcium, but newly-applied agricultural lime can induce scab so if lime is needed, far better if it was added the previous year. On soils already above 6.0 we recommend using a little gypsum to supply calcium while leaving the pH just about unchanged. Gypsum applied at 1 ton/acre (that's 5 pounds per 100 square feet) provides all needed calcium. As far as NPK goes, potatoes need well-balanced nutrition. Properly made compost at 5-10 tons per acre (25-50 pounds per 100 square feet) mainly dug into the rows below the seed is generally sufficient to produce a fine crop, while also supplying all the organic matter most soils need. If the compost is not "strong," we recommend supplementing it with fertilizer, but not too much. Potatoes given too much nitrogen grow lots of leafy vines but make few tubers. Too much potassium and your tubers may contain less protein.

Why do some potatoes have a purple center and veins? What is this, and is the potato still okay to eat?
This discoloration in the potato flesh is due to the potato being held at too cold of a temperature. This can happen before, during and after harvest. The potato is perfectly fine to eat. You may notice that the potato has a sweeter flavor as the cold turns starches to sugars.

What causes some potatoes to have a hollow center and black crust? What is this?
This is called "Hollow Heart," which is caused by a sudden change in the growth rate of the potato. This can happen if the potato plant suffers from lack of water during the growing season then receives too much water all at once. Irrigation and the constant diligence of farmers limit this from happening.

Potatoes are tubers. A tuber is a fleshy, food-storing swelling at the tip of an underground stem, also called a stolon. Potatoes have white, brown, purple or red skin and white or golden flesh.

Choose a sunny position with as little shade as possible and is free from frost pockets.

Potatoes can be grown in virtually all soil types. Dig in plenty of well rotted compost or manure in the autumn if none has been added for a previous crop. This will lighten heavy soils and give body to lighter ones helping to prevent the leaching of nutrients.

Rake in a general fertilizer 2 weeks before planting potatoes. Do not add lime - growing potatoes like a soil pH of just under 6... slightly acidic.

Potatoes grow from eyes which are pieces cut from seed potatoes. As potatoes grow they must be hilled when the plants are 20 to 30cm high. Hilling is done by covering the base of the plant with soil to prevent the potatoes from exposure to light which causes them to turn green. Before harvesting, potato vines are killed to allow the skin to set. A mechanical harvester is used to pick the potatoes. Potatoes need to be harvested at certain temperatures to maximize the length of time they can be stored. If the temperature is too warm, the pulp deteriorates before cooling can occur. If temperature is too cool, the potatoes are bruised during harvest.

Ah!! The versatile and lovable Potato. Spuds, or tubers, as they are affectionately nicknamed, are a regular at the dinner table, as well as breakfast. Plain by itself, it does not have a strong, overpowering flavor. But the numerous ways we cook and serve it, and the wide variety of spices, herbs and sauces added to or put on it, makes for a tremendous number of delicious tastes.

Despite it's mealtime appeal, it is surprising that more home gardeners do not grow potatoes. Two or three hills do not take up an overly large amount of space. And, it does not require a lot of maintenance. While you can buy, seed potatoes, the home gardener can use any potato that has been lying around the kitchen long enough to develop "eyes".

* Idaho- Famous for their quality as "Bakers"
* White Potatoes- This is the basic and most popular potato. It is used for everything from mashed to french fries.
* Red Potatoes- A less common variety with great taste!
* Salt Potatoes- Don't forget these. They are small white potatoes which are popular at fall cookouts and clambakes.

Figure 1.1-1 - Diagram of a potato plant. For simplicity, one main stem is shown. Productive plants may have two or more main stems.

Figure 1.1-2 - Cross-section of a potato tuber

Figure 1.3-1 - Growth stages of the potato.

Growth Stages

Growth Stage I: Sprout Development
Growth Stage II: Vegetative Growth
Growth Stage III: Tuber Set/Initiation
Growth Stage IV: Tuber Bulking
Growth Stage V: Maturation

Growing Potatoes:

Potatoes grow best in soft "muck" soil. Wherever mucklands can be found, you will find onion or potato farming. Potatoes will grow in many other soils. But, potato root development is enhanced by adding lots of compost and loose material into the soil. When preparing your soil, add compost, straw and other amendments down three to six inches into your soil.

The "Seed" is a potato that has developed an "eye". Potato eyes can be obtained in garden stores or seed catalogs, or in your kitchen cupboard. If there isn't any in your kitchen, ask around to friends and family.

Potatoes can be planted as early as two weeks before the last frost in your area. They are susceptible to frost, but take a couple weeks to root and emerge from the soil.

The most common form of planting is in "hills". Prepare and loosen the soil where you will make the hill. Place two or three potato eyes on the ground. Cover or "hill" three to four inches of soil on top of the seed. Water thoroughly. Space center of hills a foot apart.

A second and less common method is to use furrows. Dig a trench six to eight inches deep. Fill 1/2 the depth of the trench with a mixture of compost, mulch, straw and garden soil. Sow the eyes in the trench every four to six inches. Cover three to four inches with loose garden soil and mulch.

Fertilize every two to four weeks. Fertilizers high in nitrogen will result in a leafy, green plant at the expense of root development. A good fertilizer for potatoes contain low levels of Nitrogen, and high levels of phosphorus. 6-24-24, or 8-24-24, are good fertilizers for potatoes.

As the plants grow, mound additional soil around the plants every week or two. Do not let the tubers or potatoes be exposed to sunlight. You can cover the soil around the plants with compost, mulch or even black plastic.

Important: Potatoes exposed to sunlight will turn green. They also produce a toxin that is poisonous to you. Discard any potato that is green.


Several weeks after the plant has developed, very carefully, dig down among the roots to see if the potatoes have developed large enough tubers to harvest. Be careful not to sever the main root from the plant to the new potato. Replace soil or mulch around the plant. Once they have become large enough for consumption, you can harvest as much as you need for your individual meals. After the plants have died off, dig out and around the entire plant. Be careful to dig our far enough that you do not slice into any potatoes while harvesting.

You need not hasten to dig out your potatoes after the plant has died. They will remain perfectly safe and healthy under your garden soil for weeks. Insects and pests however, will continue to be a problem. You will have no respite from insects, moles or mice munching upon the harvest.

Again, discard any potatoes that are green in color.

Days to Maturity:

Early varieties 70 to 90 days, mid season varieties 90 to 120 days, late varieties 120 to 140 days.

Important Note: Potatoes that have been exposed to sunlight will develop a green skin which contains toxins that will make you sick. Discard any potatoes that are green.


Potatoes are susceptible to a number of pests. Among the most common are potato maggots.

A homemade recipe: Rhubarb juice seems to work well for potato bugs, just boil the rhubarb and let it cool. Then, pour it and around the plants.

Diseases of Potatoes:

Potatoes suffer from some of the same blight and mildew problems as tomatoes. Fungicides will help with fungus diseases. If the plant becomes too bushy, air circulation will be impaired and increase the chances of disease. Do not hesitate to thin a bushy plant to increase air circulation.


Potatoes are quite susceptible to frost. While you can plant them in the ground prior to the last frost, make sure your timing is such that they do not sprout prior to the last frost date. Late season varieties are also susceptible to fall frost, even a mild one. While the plant will die back, the potato underneath the soil is safe from harm of frost or even freezes.

How to start growing potatoes?
When can I dig up my potatoes?
Depending on your type of potato, harvest should occur anywhere between 3-5 months and the longer you leave them the greater chance the spuds will be larger and mature.

Which is the best season to grow potatoes?
How should I store my harvested potatoes?
Like most tubers, potatoes detest moisture so after washing them you will need to dry them completely and then store them in a dry, airy place until required.

Regardless of popular opinion, keeping some potatoes aside for next season's seed is a good idea. While most producers of seed potato would have us shake in fear over such a suggestion for the most part potatoes can grow quite well without being certified. Obviously this will require some trialling unless you can source some quality heirloom varieties but they should still grow well in years to come.

Your next step is to determine the recommended planting time for your climate. Since it takes potatoes two to three weeks to emerge from the ground, the earliest you should plant seed potatoes is two weeks before your last anticipated freeze date of 28 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. (If you don't know your local last freeze date, you can find it here.) About a week before your planting-out date, bring the seed out of the fridge and place it in a bright warm window for about a week. This will help break the spuds' dormancy and assure they will grow quickly when you put them into the still-cool spring soil.

Does planting potatoes in a deep mulch on uncultivated ground still give reasonably good yields?
A: This deep mulch potato planting technique is called the Stout method, named after the old-time popular organic gardener Ruth Stout. Over the years Ruth had created beautiful soil and that fertile soil was a big factor in her success. Perform the Stout method on great soil and expect great yields of delicious potatoes. But try the technique on old worn out and unimproved ground and get ready to learn some patience and gain some humility. Potatoes are heavy feeders and they will respond dramatically to good fertility and tilth. Your yield will suffer to the extent that the soil you plant in lacks proper fertility and water.

How late in the year can you plant potatoes?

You can plant potatoes until about July in most places.

Are seed potatoes treated with chemicals when you buy them?
Our seed potatoes are not treated with any chemicals. However, potatoes that you buy at the supermarket are treated with chemicals to keep them from sprouting.

Do fingerling potatoes grow well in cages?
Yes, fingerling potatoes do very well in cages.

We've always grown potatoes from seed potatoes, but the original plant had to come from somewhere! Can potato plants be grown from seed?
Yes, potatoes can be grown from seeds. However, potatoes grown from seed do not stay true to their type. Each seeds will produce a different type of potato, so you end up with an unpredictable crop. These days, new potato types are propogated from tissue cultures taken as universities or private labs.

Can shallots be grown in containers or raised beds?
Yes, as long as teh container is 10-12 inches deep.

How do I place an order and specify it for direct local pickup at your Thorp location?
When completing your order, simply specify that you want local pickup in the "special instructions" text box. We will not charge shipping, and have your order ready for you to pick up.

Can I plant sweet potatoes from "eyes" of a regular sweet potatoes or must I use slips?
We only use slips to plant sweet potatoes.

How deep should you plant a starter potato?
Shallow plant the starter potato and hill as the potato grows.

What is a single drop potato?
A whole potato that doesn't need to be cut.

About how many potato seedlings does it take to grow 100 lbs of potatoes?
Approximately 10 to 15 lbs.

What should the yield be per pound of seed potato?
Five to eight times as much as you planted.

Can I grow potatoes in a raised bed? If so, how deep will the bed have to be?
Yes. The bed will need to be 12" to 14" deep.

Can potatoes be grown in a container? If so, which varieties would be the best?
Growing potatoes in a container is really only mildly successful. We recommend trying Yellow Finn.

Are the eyes of a potato dangerous if you eat them?
Yes, the leaves and eyes on the potato plant are poisonous.

How do you prevent scab on potatoes?
Water your potatoes evenly. Test the pH level of your soil; make sure it has a pH level of less than 7.

How far apart do you have to plant potatoes?
Normally 10" to 12" apart.

What causes white or yellow potatoes to turn green? Are they Ok to eat then?
Over exposure to sun light often causes white and yellow potatoes to turn color. The green skin can be peeled off. It is fine to eat but some people may get an upset stomach.

In browsing the potato varieties, I see that many of my favorites are "currently unavailable." Will they be available later in the year for planting next spring?
Some will, some won’t. Some varieties are sold out before we can even open them on the Internet. We recommend pre-ordering your potato varieties, especially if they historically sell out quickly. We do not charge a customers order until we have product in stock to fill the order. In the event that we are completely sold out of a pre-ordered variety customers may substitute the variety with another, remove the variety from the order or cancel the order.

Is light necessary for the sprouting of a potato?
Light, heat and time are all necessary for potato sprouts.

Is it safe to eat Potatoes once they have sprouted 3 or 4 inches?
Yes, just make sure you remove the sprouts.

I planted sweet potatoes. We are overdue for a frost. Can I leave them in till the frost (I am zone 4 so the move time I can give them the better) or should I pull them before?
They should be fine if you leave them until the first frost as long as they are harvested quickly.

Which potato varities are most resistant to Blight?
Blight has about the same effect on all varieties.

How do you know when your potatoes are ready to be harvested?
Carefully start checking your potatoes two weeks after they bloom. When they have grown to the size of your liking start harvesting them.

A handful of our potatoes appear to have cracked and then healed over. What caused this?
Uneven or inconsistent watering of your potatoes will cause water growth cracks. To prevent water growth cracks, water evenly and fertilize less.

Is the sweet potato considered a vegetable or a starch?
Sweet potatoes are considered to be a starch.

Do potatoes have to go through a storage period before they can be used as seed potatoes?

What is wrong if your potato plants are not making potatoes?
It can vary but most likely there is too much nitrogen in your soil.

When planting my pre-sprouted potatoes, do you plant the seed end or the sprouts up or down?
You want to plant them with the sprouts faces up.

What does it mean when you call a potato a creamer or steamer?
Creamers and steamers are small immature potatoes that are no larger than a quarter.

How do you define early season, mid season, and late season potatoes?
Whether a potato is an early, mid, or late is determined by the time it takes for the potato to reach maturity. Here is a breakdown:
Early Season Potatoes: 65+ days
Mid Season Potatoes: 80+ days
Late Season Potatoes: 90+ days

You want to plant your potatoes when the soil is 50+ degrees for best results.

I have been mounding the soil up around the potato plants as they grow. How high should I continue to mound the soil?

9” to 12” mounds are sufficient.

I am intrested in growing fingerling potatoes. Could you tell me if i buy 10 lbs. how many lbs will be produced.
Generally with fingerlings you get about 8 times the amount back of what you plant. Depending on the conditions and length of growing season. Results can vary.


The ideal potato soil is deep, light and loose, a well-drained but moisture retentive loam. Most potato varieties are very aggressive rooting plants, and are able to take full advantage of such soil. In ideal soil potatoes can make incredible yields. Fortunately, the potato is also very adaptable and will usually produce quite respectably where soil conditions are less than perfect. Because of this, many people who grow their own food on marginal agricultural ground depend on the potato for their very survival. All soils, be they ideal of too heavy or too light, should be deeply fitted before planting by sub-soiling or double digging and by incorporating organic matter. Humus is important. It lightens and aerates heavy ground while it increases the moisture holding capacity of sandy earth. And humus adds the organic component of fertility that potatoes need to be truly healthy. Potatoes especially thrive one newly plowed pasture land, a circumstance a bit difficult for most vegetables because of the large number of weed seeds. The frequent hoeing used to hill the crop up keeps weeds under control while the high levels of organic matter from the rotting sod keeps the soil light and loose. Potatoes do best in soil with a pH ranging from 5.2-6.8. Alkaline soil will tend to make many varieties get scabby. Potatoes also respond to calcium, but newly-applied agricultural lime can induce scab so if lime is needed, far better if it was added the previous year. On soils already above 6.0 we recommend using a little gypsum to supply calcium while leaving the pH just about unchanged. Gypsum applied at 1 ton/acre (that's 5 pounds per 100 square feet) provides all needed calcium. As far as NPK goes, potatoes need well-balanced nutrition. Properly made compost at 5-10 tons per acre (25-50 pounds per 100 square feet) mainly dug into the rows below the seed is generally sufficient to produce a fine crop, while also supplying all the organic matter most soils need. If the compost is not "strong," we recommend supplementing it with fertilizer, but not too much. Potatoes given too much nitrogen grow lots of leafy vines but make few tubers. Too much potassium and your tubers may contain less protein. Organic gardeners may use any kind of seedmeal cottonseed, soy, linseed, canola, etc.), dug in with compost at a rate of about 1-2 gallons per 100 row feet. Alfalfa meal or chicken manure compost also works fine used at twice that rate.


The practice of greening and pre-sprouting seed potatoes before planting them out encourages early growth and hastens the development of marketable tubers. The method is simple: spread the seed tubers in open-top crates, boxes or flats, one layer deep with the "seed end" uppermost. (If you'll closely observe a seed potato, you'll notice that one end was attached to the plant, the other end has a larger number of eyes from which the sprouts emerge. This end with the eye cluster is called the seed end.) The flats are kept in a warm place (70 degrees F.) where light levels are medium in intensity (bright shade). The warmth stimulates the development of strong sprouts from the bud eye clusters, which in the presence of light, remain stubby and so are not easily broken off. Usually seed potatoes are greened up starting a week or tow before planting. Do not cut the seed before greening it up. It will dry out. Cut it just before planting.


Seed potatoes can rot without sprouting in cold, waterlogged soil, so planting extremely early can be risky. Optimum soil temperature for good growth ranges from 55 deg. F. to 70 deg. F. A small planting of the earliest early potatoes may be attempted by planting 6-8 weeks before the last frost date. If a late frost burns the vines back to ground level the tubers will make more sprouts, but each time this setback happens the final yield gets later and smaller. Your main crop should be sown so that there is virtually no risk of frost blackening the emerging vines. The width between rows and overall plant spacing is determined by the size of your garden, your method of cultivation and the amount of irrigation you have available (or wish to use). Farmers and market gardeners need 36-42 inches between rows to permit efficient cultivation and hilling. Gardeners can get by with as little as 2 feet between rows. Where water is short or irrigation will not be used and soil is open and loose so plants can take advantage of this much rooting space, row spacing can be increased to as much as 5 feet and the individual seed pieces separated as much as 18 inches apart, giving the plants a large area in which to forage for moisture. Of course, with wide spacing like this combined with the effects of moisture stress, yields will be lower. Whatever your row spacing, dig a shallow trench about 6-8 inches deep. Plant the seed pieces 10-14 inches apart in this trench. Using a rake, cover the seed with 3-4 inches of soil-do not fill the trench completely.


Hilling is crucial to creating a place for potatoes to develop a large size and abundantly. Sprouts will emerge in about two weeks, depending on the soil temperature. When the stems are about 8 inches high, gently hill the vines up with soil scraped from both sides of the row with a hoe. Doing this simultaneously weeds the row. Leave about half of the vine exposed. Hilling puts the root system deeper where the soil is cooler while the just scraped-up soil creates a light fluffy medium for the tubers to develop into. All tubers will form between the seed piece and the surface of the soil. Another hilling will be needed in another 2-3 weeks and yet another as well, 2 weeks after the second. On subsequent hilling, add only an inch or two of soil to the hill, but make sure there is enough soil atop the forming potatoes that they don't push out of the hill and get exposed to light (or they'll turn green). But if you hill up too much soil, you'll cover too many leaves and reduce your final yield.


Normally, seven or eight weeks after planting, the earliest varieties are blossoming. This signifies that early potatoes may be ready, so gently poke into a potato hill by hand to see what you can find while making as little disturbance as possible. You may either "rob" a few plants of a potato, or simply harvest an entire plant from the end of the row. "Rob" gently to avoid injuring growing roots and stressing the plant. The main crop. Later varieties are usually grown for winter storage. The ideal time to harvest is when the vines are dead. It is best to wait until heavy frosts kill the tops off or, if your tubers are fully-sized up but no frost is in sight, you can mow the tops or cut them off by hand with a sickle. But if you can wait for the tops to die back naturally, your harvest will be a little bigger and your potatoes just a tad richer. Dryish soil is definitely an advantage when harvesting; the tubers come up a lot cleaner and with much less effort. After the tops are dead, rest the tubers in the ground, undisturbed for two weeks to "cure," while the skins toughen up, protecting the tubers from scuffing and bruising during harvest and storage. Minor injuries in the skin may heal if allowed to dry. It is better to harvest in the cool morning hours. You want to chill your tubers down as fast as reasonably possible and if they start out cool it will be much easier. If hand digging, place your fork outside the hill at first and lift the hill from outside so as to avoid stabbing a potato. If the soil is wet, let them air-dry on the surface for a few hours before gathering them. If the weather is unsettled and you still must harvest, spread the potatoes out under cover and let them air-dry before storing. Then "field-grade" your harvest. Separate out and discard (or set aside to eat immediately) any blemished, scabby, misshapen, or injured tubers. Do not put cut or damaged tubers (those injured during harvest) into a sack of good ones; they will rot and rot other potatoes with them.


In most parts of the United States, potatoes can be grown without irrigation if the soil is deep and open, where there is no hardpan that restricts root penetration, and the soil is not composed entirely of coarse sand or too gravelly. In fact, there are some definite nutritional and quality advantages to accepting the significantly lowered yield that happens when potatoes don't receive all the water they could use. Simply stated, un-irrigated potatoes are less watery and taste better. The skins are also tougher so the tubers store better. There is some evidence that potatoes grown this way have a higher protein content as well. However, if irrigation water is scarce or not available the potatoes must be given more "elbow room," so they can forage for their water without having to compete with other potato plants-and very importantly, the weeds must all be eliminated so they also don't compete for soil moisture.


After emergence and until blooming ends, we highly recommend foliar spraying every two weeks with fish emulsion and/or a good liquid seaweed extract like Maxi-crop. You can't beat foliar sprays for ease of application, and the plants really respond with a burst of vine growth that will result in a higher yield at the end. Spray in the morning while it's still cool and the dew lingers on the leaves. This way all the fertilizer is absorbed. The best time to make the first application is the day before you hill up the vines for the first time. Once the vines are in full bloom, they stop making much new vegetative growth and begin to form tubers. Additional fertilization at this stage is virtually pointless and may harm the flavor of the potato.



An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! Here are some tips to help you avoid the worst potato diseases and pests. Soil is everything! Build and maintain a healthy, well-balanced soil and your plants will naturally resist disease and damage from predatory insects. If you're uncertain as to how to do this, we sell a couple of fine books on the subject. Scab. Avoid un-composted animal manures, alkaline soil, and water-logging on potato ground to avoid scab. Where scab has been a problem, try acidifying your soil pH by incorporating small amounts of elemental sulfur into the rows several weeks before planting. Disease. Don't grow potatoes in the same ground more than once in three years. Many diseases, like early or late blight and verticulum wilt are soil borne. Insect pest populations can also accumulate in a spot. Other members of the nightshade family (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant) should not precede nor follow potatoes.


The most basic rule: to avoid insect problems have vigorously growing, healthy vines. Plants putting on lots of leaf rapidly can generally withstand some predation without a significant loss of yield. We avoid planting too early when cold weather check growth. Leaf-eating insects can become a much more serous problem once vine growth has stopped and tubers are forming. The tubers store the food made by the leaves; if too many leaves are lost the tubers can't develop properly. The Colorado Potato Beetle is the most widespread and destructive potato pest. Both adults and larvae feed on leaves and stems, sometimes defoliating entire plants. Handpicking the beetles off the plants is fine control in a small garden, if you catch the problem early. Drop the beetles into a container and then smash them all at once. Check also for small yellow eggs, in clusters, on the undersides of leaves and crush these immediately. Beetle eggs over-winter in the soil, especially at the edges of the garden. Rotation of the farm potato crop is essential, but rotation in a backyard won't do much good for this mobile pest; you have to move the potato patch more than just a few feet. Bacillis thuringienses (Bt.) var. San Diego, is an effective botanical control, but unfortunately, only for the larvae. The adults are not harmed at all. Hours after the "worm" eats a bit of treated leaf, it becomes so sick it can't eat again and dies within a day or two. Then the bacteria multiply within the larvae's decomposing body and are later released into the environmental background to kill still other beetle larvae. Even growers with small gardens should consider Bt. because this bacteria, once established, persists in the area for years and continues to significantly reduce the number of those insects who succumb to it. And if Bt. is sprayed frequently it can virtually eliminate the problem. Start with spraying as soon as there is anything in the garden for the beetles to eat and spray every 10 days to two weeks. That way no larvae get a chance to become adults and your problem may "peter out" before the potato vines are significantly damaged. Bt. is a bacteria not significantly different than the ones that make yogurt. Bt. is entirely nontoxic to humans and other animals and harmless to most insects as well; you can immediately eat food sprayed with it. If adult beetles are causing too much trouble, Bt. will not help until the next cycle has come around. For adults, the organic gardener can use 5% Rotenone dust or a Pyrethrin spray. Flea beetles can also make so many pinholes in leaves that the overall yield suffers greatly. The health of the vines has a great deal to do with how much interest flea beetles have in a plant. So the best prevention is total soil fertility. Sometimes spraying fertilizer like fish emulsion and/or liquid seaweed can lessen the interest flea beetles may have in a potato patch. Rotenone and/or Pyrethrin controls flea beetles, too. If you are having flea beetle problems, you should consider improving your soil's fertility next year.



If your soil is shallow, rocky or contains so much clay that the forming tubers can't push it aside as they try to swell up, or, if you grow potatoes where the summer's heat is intense, or if you have problems with potato scab in your soil, growing in mulch may be your solution. Prepare your seed bed as deeply as possible and make it fertile, just as you would for growing the potatoes in soil. But instead of making a trench for the seed pieces, plant them on the surface of just below it. Loosely shake mulch over the bed, 6-10 inches deep. The very best mulch to use is loose, seed-free grain straw, Seed-free hay that has been fluffed up, leaves and/or well-dried grass clippings can also be used. As the plants grow, continue to add more loose mulch as though you were hilling up the plants. Be sure to keep the tubers well-covered at all times. The result is excellent weed control, a continuous supply of moisture and reduced stress from heat. At harvest time, pull back the mulch. Your nest of potatoes should be clean, uniform and easy to gather.


Grow a few potato plants, each or in their own woode1:18 PM 11/13/00n box, crib, barrel or wire cage. The container should be about 18x18 inches at the base, about 24-30 inches tall, and able to be gradually filled with soft soil or mulch as the vines grow. Set each container atop a well-prepared fertile soil. Plant one strong seed piece and cover lightly with 4 inches of soil. As the vines grow, gradually fill the container with mellow compost, mulch or soil, but always make sure you don't cover more than one-third of the vine's new growth. With some varieties, the underground stolons which produce potato tubers keep on forming new ones for some time. In containers the yield may be increased 200-3000 percent compared with open-field culture. This is a great way to grow a lot of potatoes in a very limited space. We recommend doing this with Yellow Finn, Indian Pit, Red Pontiac, or the fingerling types. Watering requirements will be greater however, so check the cages or containers frequently in warm weather.


Potatoes keep best in the dark at 36 deg. to 40 deg. F., at high enough humidity that they don't dry out, and given enough air circulation that they can respire (don't forget, they're alive). Light and/or warmth promote sprouting and will also turn the potatoes green. But, cold potatoes bruise easily, so handle them gently when moving them around in storage. We recommend burlap sacks, slotted crates or baskets.


Early Spring Planting

Spring comes to the Deep South (Zones 8, 9, 10) when it is frequently too stormy in the North to ship your seeds without a high likelihood of them freezing in transit. To get seed potatoes securely you should order in October or November. Store the seed in your refrigerator (there are instructions on the preceding pages) until mid-January. Then bring the seed potatoes into the warmth and light and pre-sprout (chit) them for 2-4 weeks. Plant when conditions are favorable, sometime in February to early March, depending on your location. If you are uncertain when to plant or which varieties grow best at this time of year, ask a neighbor, the Extension Service.

Fall-Planted Potatoes

In zones 8-10, over wintering gets the earliest of the earlies. And if you have an extra old refrigerator, you can fill it up after harvest and hold your harvest through the summer until the fall crop. Here's what to do. Order some seed now for delivery next September. These newly dug seed potatoes don't sprout easily. First, chill them; put the tubers in a paper bag and place it in the refrigerator for 2-4 weeks. Then follow the directions for "greening" or "chitting" them. They will probably sprout in 2-4 weeks. Another way to induce sprouting is by putting apples, bananas, or onions in a paper bag with the tubers and placing the bag in a warm room (70 degrees F.). Ethylene gas given off from the fruits will initiate sprouting. Potatoes that are chilled for a month to six weeks will respond much more rapidly. You can also treat with Gerablic Acid. Plant your just sprouting potatoes from October through November. Choose a site that allows good drainage where winter rains may be heavy. By January, your potatoes could be emerging. By March, the vines may be two feet tall! Of course, weather will greatly effect emergence and growth. Be sure to provide protection from frost when it threatens. Dig new potatoes after blossoming. Harvest the rest when the vines have browned off. Save some seed in your refrigerator for a late-summer planting and fall harvest.

Potatoes are harvested from early summer through to late fall. Those harvested during the summer and early fall are trucked to on-farm packing operations or processors. At these facilities, the potatoes are washed, graded, packaged and distributed to buyers throughout UK. Those harvested in the fall are put into storage, and loads are removed and distributed to wholesalers and processors as the market demands. Approximately 40% of the main crop goes for processing, with the remaining 60% destined for the fresh market.

Can leftover potatoes be frozen?
We don't recommend it. While cooked potatoes can be frozen, they tend to become watery upon reheating. The potato is 80% water; and when frozen, this water separates from the starch and nutrients causing the reheated potato dish to be watery.

Potato late blight and insect pests are the main concern for potato growers. A program is in place to track the occurrence of plant diseases and insect infestation.

Potato grower
Field workers
Seed potato producer
Workers in processing plants

Nutritional Information

Why are potatoes a good source of carbohydrates?

Potato Prep/Cooking
Potato Chip

How do you can potatoes?
What is the best fertilizer to use on potatoes?
Storing Potatoes
1. Where is the best place to store potatoes?
2. Should I wash my potatoes before storing?

What are potatoes?

Potatoes are tubers. A tuber is a fleshy, food-storing swelling at the tip of an underground stem, also called a stolon. Potatoes have white, brown, purple or red skin and white or golden flesh.

How many potatoes do we produce?

How are potatoes produced?

Potatoes grow from eyes which are pieces cut from seed potatoes. As potatoes grow they must be hilled when the plants are 20 to 30cm high. Hilling is done by covering the base of the plant with soil to prevent the potatoes from exposure to light which causes them to turn green. Before harvesting, potato vines are killed to allow the skin to set. A mechanical harvester is used to pick the potatoes. Potatoes need to be harvested at certain temperatures to maximize the length of time they can be stored. If the temperature is too warm, the pulp deteriorates before cooling can occur. If temperature is too cool, the potatoes are bruised during harvest.


Fresh potatoes, potato chips and French fries are the most common uses for potatoes. They are a good source of potassium, iron, thiamin, folic acid and vitamin C. The nutritive value of potatoes is reduced the more the potato is processed. Thus, French fries have about one-half as much vitamin C as boiled or mashed potatoes have. Potatoes are about 80% water.

What happens after the potatoes leave the farm?

Potatoes are harvested from early summer through to late fall. Those harvested during the summer and early fall are trucked to on-farm packing operations or processors. At these facilities, the potatoes are washed, graded, packaged and distributed to __________.

Potatoes go to state warehouses to be distributed through public distribution system in the state. Surplus potatoes get exported outside the state for products and services in essential ingredients of the economy in the state.

Those harvested in the fall are put into storage, and loads are removed and distributed to wholesalers and processors as the market demands. Approximately 40% of the main crop goes for processing, with the remaining 60% destined for the fresh market.


Potato late blight and insect pests are a concern for potato growers. A new program is in place to map the occurrence of plant diseases and insect infestation in a geographic information system. By knowing where disease and insect problems are likely to occur, IPM (Integrated Pest Management) can be utilized more efficiently.

Who is involved in producing potatoes?

What are carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are any of a large group of sugars or starches that the body uses by converting into glucose a simple sugar for fuel. Sugars and starches are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are also the major energy source within plants and animals. They are also a component of food that supplies calories to the body.

Q. What are the differences between sweet potatoes and yams? Can I substitute one for the other in recipes?

In the __________, the term "yam" is used interchangeably, but incorrectly, with "sweet potato." In fact, they are different and distinct vegetables. To further the confusion, canned and frozen sweet potatoes are often labeled as yams.

Both yams and sweet potatoes are tubers, or roots, of plants. The tropical yam is popular in Central and South America, Africa and Asia. Sweet potatoes are native to North America. The flesh of yams ranges in color from white or yellow to pink or purple. The flesh of the most common variety of sweet potato is deep orange.

Yams have higher sugar and moisture contents, but sweet potatoes are richer in vitamins A and C. Yams can be used interchangeably with sweet potatoes in most recipes.

I'd like to use sweet potatoes and yams in my cooking throughout the year, not just during the holidays. Do you have any tips for using these vegetables year-round?

Oh, the lonely, sometimes forgotten, often overlooked sweet potato.
A smooth mash is key to many recipes. And because some canned varieties tend to remain a bit lumpy after they've been mashed by hand or even with a handheld electric mixer, use a food processor or a blender. You'll get a creamy smooth texture every single time.

Here are more sweet potato tips:

* Substitute sweet potatoes in baked goods calling for mashed bananas or pumpkin.
* Bourbon, rum, orange liqueur, and vanilla pair well with sweet potatoes. Just a teaspoon or so in a sweet potato dish brings out the vegetable's savory side.
* Just 1/2 cup of mashed sweet potatoes delivers more than 200 percent of the vitamin A and well over one-third of the vitamin C you should have in a day.
Why do some recipes for diabetics include potatoes?
I'm diabetic, and my doctor told me not to eat them.
Since most meal plans allow between 40 and 60 grams of carbohydrate per meal, many diabetic recipes are designed to be suitable for these meal plans. So, you will find a few recipes that include high-carbohydrate foods. Including foods high in carbohydrate in your meal is acceptable as long as they are counted toward the total carbohydrate content of the meal.

Daily meal plans are very individual. A recipe may work well for one meal plan but not for another.

Yukon Gold Early to Mid season Large, yellow-fleshed variety. They are excellent baked, boiled, or mashed. These potatos store well. Superior Mid season Good baked, boiled, or mashed. Resistant to potato scab. Red Pontiac Late maturing High yields, large round potatoes, easy to grow, stores well.

Kennebec Late maturing Excellent producer, large potatoes, great for baking or frying, stores well.

Russet Norkotah Late maturing Excellent baking potato, excellent producer, large potatoes.

White Rose Early to Mid season Good producer, good for cooking, doesn't store well.

Russet Mid season Excellent producer, excellent baking potato, large potatoes, excellent for storage.

Norland Early maturing Red skin, white flesh, excellent when boiled, fried, or mashed, stores well.

Planting Methods for Growing Potatoes

Traditionally potatoes are grown in rows. The potato 'seeds' are planted every 15 in., with the rows spaced 2 1/2 to 3 ft. apart. If space is limited or if you would only like to grow a small crop of potatoes, you may prefer to plant one or two potato mounds. Each 3-4 foot diameter mound can support 6 to 8 potato plants.

With either method, the first step is to cultivate and turn the soil one last time before planting, removing any weeds, rocks or debris. This will loosen the soil and allow the plants to become established more quickly.

Your potato plants will benefit from the addition of compost, well composted manure, and other organic matter to the soil. HOWEVER, too much organic material can increase the chances of potato scab.

Potato scab is a bacterial infection which doesn't affect the usability of your potatoes, but it does make them look pretty ugly! To lessen the likelihood of potato scab, mix the organic matter into the soil below the potato seed, where it will feed the roots, but not contact the newly forming potatoes.

Planting in rows

Dig a shallow trench about 4 inches wide and 6-8 inches deep. The spacing at which you place the seed pieces will determine the harvested potato size. For most household uses, you will want to plant your potato seeds 15 inches apart in this trench. If you'd like a quick crop of "baby" potatoes for soups and stews, you can plant the seeds 4 inches apart, and begin harvesting them as soon as they reach the desired size. Place the potato seeds into the trench (cut side down) and then cover them with 3-4 inches of soil. (Do not fill the trench in completely!) Depending on the soil temperature, the sprouts will begin to emerge in about 2 weeks. At this time add another 3-4 inches of soil.

Your crop of potatoes will form between the seed piece and the surface of the soil. For this reason, when the stems are about 8 inches high, you once again add enough soil to bring the level half way up the stem of the plant. Another hilling will be needed 2-3 weeks later, at which time you again add soil half way up the stem of the plant. After these initial hillings, it is only necessary to add an inch or two of soil to the hill each week or so, to ensure there is enough soil above the forming potatoes that they don't push out of the hill and get exposed to light.

If the new potatoes are exposed to sunlight while they are developing, they will turn green. This green portion may be toxic!

Potatos can be prepared many different ways

Mound planting

The hilling process is necessary in both methods to create sufficient space for the potatoes to develop large tubers, and an abundant crop. Don't get carried away with hilling though... If you cover up too much of the foliage, you may end up reducing your final crop yield. The basic procedure for planting potatoes in mounds is the same as for planting in rows. The difference here is that you can grow your crop in a more confined area, or take advantage of an otherwise unused area of the garden.

Cultivate and loosen the soil where your potato mound will be. Designate the approximate perimeter of your planting circle (3-4 feet diameter). Space 6-8 potato seeds evenly around your circle, and cover with the initial 4 inches of soil. Continue the same procedures as you would for planting in rows.

Potatoes thrive in the warm environment of a soil filled tire! Four tires + Two pounds of seed potatoes + Good soil = 20-30 pounds of winter potatoes!

Pick a spot where you can stack your tires which is out of the way and preferably out of sight. Loosen the surface of the soil just enough to allow for drainage, and set your largest tire in place. Fill the inside of the tire casing loosely with good topsoil, and then set 3-4 potato seeds into the soil. (Use sticks or rocks to keep the casing rings spread open.) Add enough soil to the tire "hole" to bring it to the same level as the soil inside the tire.

Potato watering and care

For the maximum crop, keep your potato vines well watered throughout the summer, but especially during the period when they are in flower, and immediately thereafter. This is the time when the plant is creating the new tubers, and water is critical. Water early in the day so that the foliage has time to dry completely before evening. (Wet foliage can make your plants more susceptible to several potato diseases.) When foliage turns yellow and dies back, discontinue watering to allow the tubers to "mature" for a week or two before harvesting.

Once the vines have passed the critical watering stage while in flower, they will tolerate a certain amount of drought. According to some studies, non-irrigated potatoes are less watery and more healthful. However, potato plants which are not watered regularly will produce a much smaller crop.

Harvesting your Potatos

Your may begin to harvest your potatoes 2 to 3-weeks after the plants have finished flowering. At this time you will only find small "baby" potatoes if you were to dig up a plant. Potatoes can be harvested any time after this, by gently loosening the soil, reaching under the plant, and removing the largest tubers, leaving the smaller ones to continue growing.

If you want late potatoes for storage, wait 2-3 weeks after the foliage dies back. Carefully begin digging a foot or so outside of the row or mound. Remove the potatoes as you find them. (Be careful not to bruise or cut the tubers with your spade!) If the weather is dry, allow the potatoes to lay on the soil surface, unwashed, for 2-3 days so they can dry. If the weather is wet, or rain is expected, move the harvest to a cool, dry area (like a garage or basement) for the drying period. This drying step is necessary to mature the potato skin, which will protect the potato during storage.

If, by the end of September, the plants have not begun to die back, all of the foliage should be cut off to ensure your crop has ample time to mature before winter. Store your undamaged potatoes in a well-ventilated, dark, cool (about 40 degrees) location. Properly dried and stored potatoes should keep well for three to six months.

Whether mashed, baked or roasted, people often consider potatoes as comfort food. It is an important food staple and the number one vegetable crop in the world. Potatoes are available year-round as they are harvested somewhere every month of the year.

The potato belongs to the Solanaceae or nightshade family whose other members include tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, and tomatillos. They are the swollen portion of the underground stem which is called a tuber and is designed to provide food for the green leafy portion of the plant.

Don't grow potatoes in the same soil more than once in three years.
Potatoes provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Potatoes can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Potatoes, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

* Health Benefits
* Description
* History
* How to Select and Store
* How to Enjoy
* Individual Concerns
* Nutritional Profile
* References

Health Benefits

Potatoes are a very popular food source. Unfortunately, most people eat potatoes in the form of greasy French fries or potato chips, and even baked potatoes are typically loaded down with fats such as butter, sour cream, melted cheese and bacon bits. Such treatment can make even baked potatoes a potential contributor to a heart attack. But take away the extra fat and deep frying, and a baked potato is an exceptionally healthful low calorie, high fiber food that offers significant protection against cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Our food ranking system qualified potatoes as a very good source of vitamin C, a good source of vitamin B6, copper, potassium, manganese, and dietary fiber.

Potatoes also contain a variety of phytonutrients that have antioxidant activity. Among these important health-promoting compounds are carotenoids, flavonoids, and caffeic acid, as well as unique tuber storage proteins, such as patatin, which exhibit activity against free radicals.

Potatoes' Phytochemicals Rival Those in Broccoli

Potatoes' reputation as a high-carb, white starch has removed them from the meals of many a weight-conscious eater, but this stereotype is due for a significant overhaul. A new analytical method developed by Agricultural Research Service plant geneticist Roy Navarre has identified 60 different kinds of phytochemicals and vitamins in the skins and flesh of 100 wild and commercially grown potatoes. Analysis of Red and Norkotah potatoes revealed that these spuds' phenolic content rivals that of broccoli, spinach and Brussels sprouts, and includes flavonoids with protective activity against cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems and certain cancers. Navarre's team also identified potatoes with high levels of vitamin C, folic acid, quercetin and kukoamines. These last compounds, which have blood pressure lowering potential, have only been found in one other plant, Lycium chinense (a.k.a., wolfberry/gogi berry). How much kukoamine is needed for a blood pressure lowering effect in humans must be assessed before it can be determined whether an average portion of potatoes delivers enough to impact cardiovascular health. Still, potatoes' phytochemical profiles show it's time to shed their starch-only image; spuds-baked, steamed or healthy sautéed but not fried-deserve a place in your healthy way of eating."Phytochemical Profilers Investigate Potato Benefits,"Agricultural Research, September 2007

Blood-Pressure Lowering Potential

Until now, when analyzing a plant's composition, scientists had to know what they were seeking and could typically look for 30 or so known compounds. Now, metabolomic techniques enable researchers to find the unexpected by analyzing the 100s or even 1000s of small molecules produced by an organism.

"Potatoes have been cultivated for thousands of years, and we thought traditional crops were pretty well understood," said IFR food scientist Dr Fred Mellon, "but this surprise finding shows that even the most familiar of foods might conceal a hoard of health-promoting chemicals." Another good reason to center your diet around the World's Healthiest Foods!

The IFR scientists found higher levels of kukoamines and related compounds than some of the other compounds in potatoes that have a long history of scientific investigation. However, because they were previously only noted in Lycium chinense, kukoamines have been little studied. Researchers are now determining their stability during cooking and dose response (how much of these compounds are needed to impact health).

Vitamin B6-Building Your Cells

If only for its high concentration of vitamin B6-a cup of baked potato contains 21.0% of the daily value for this important nutrient-the potato earns high marks as a health-promoting food.

Vitamin B6 is involved in more than 100 enzymatic reactions. Enzymes are proteins that help chemical reactions take place, so vitamin B6 is active virtually everywhere in the body. Many of the building blocks of protein, amino acids, require B6 for their synthesis, as do the nucleic acids used in the creation of our DNA. Because amino and nucleic acids are such critical parts of new cell formation, vitamin B6 is essential for the formation of virtually all new cells in the body. Heme (the protein center of our red blood cells) and phospholipids (cell membrane components that enable messaging between cells) also depend on vitamin B6 for their creation.

Vitamin B6-Brain Cell and Nervous System Activity

Vitamin B6 plays numerous roles in our nervous system, many of which involve neurological (brain cell) activity. B6 is necessary for the creation of amines, a type of messaging molecule or neurotransmitter that the nervous system relies on to transmit messages from one nerve to the next. Some of the amine-derived neurotransmitters that require vitamin B6 for their production are serotonin, a lack of which is linked to depression; melatonin, the hormone needed for a good night's sleep; epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that help us respond to stress; and GABA, which is needed for normal brain function.

Vitamin B6-Cardiovascular Protection

Vitamin B6 plays another critically important role in methylation, a chemical process in which methyl groups are transferred from one molecule to another. Many essential chemical events in the body are made possible by methylation, for example, genes can be switched on and turned off in this way. This is particularly important in cancer prevention since one of the genes that can be switched on and off is the tumor suppressor gene, p53. Another way that methylation helps prevent cancer is by attaching methyl groups to toxic substances to make them less toxic and encourage their elimination from the body.

Methylation is also important to cardiovascular health. Methylation changes a potentially dangerous molecule called homocysteine into other, benign substances. Since homocysteine can directly damage blood vessel walls greatly increasing the progression of atherosclerosis, high homocysteine levels are associated with a significantly increased risk for heart attack and stroke. Eating foods rich in vitamin B6 can help keep homocysteine levels low. In addition, diets high in vitamin B6-rich foods are associated with overall lower rates of heart disease, even when homocysteine levels are normal, most likely because of all the other beneficial activities of this energetic B vitamin.

A single baked potato will also provide you with 11.7% of the daily value for fiber, but remember the fiber in potatoes is mostly in their skin. If you want the cholesterol-lowering, colon cancer preventing, and bowel supportive effects of fiber, be sure to eat the potato's flavorful skin as well as its creamy center.

Vitamin B6-Athletic Performance

Vitamin B6 is also necessary for the breakdown of glycogen, the form in which sugar is stored in our muscle cells and liver, so this vitamin is a key player in athletic performance and endurance.


Whether it is mashed, baked or made into French fries, many people often think of the potato as a comfort food. This sentiment probably inspired the potato's scientific name, Solanum tuberosum, since solanum is derived from a Latin word meaning "soothing". The potato's name also reflects that it belongs to the Solanaceae family whose other members include tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, and tomatillos.

There are about about 100 varieties of edible potatoes. They range in size, shape, color, starch content and flavor. They are often classified as either mature potatoes (the large potatoes that we are generally familiar with) and new potatoes (those that are harvested before maturity and are of a much smaller size). Some of the popular varieties of mature potatoes include the Russet Burbank, the White Rose and the Katahdin, while the Red LeSoda and Red Pontiac are two types of new potatoes. There are also delicate fingerling varieties available which, as their name suggests, are finger-shaped.

The skin of potatoes is generally brown, red or yellow, and may be smooth or rough, while the flesh is yellow or white. There are also other varieties available that feature purple-grey skin and a beautiful deep violet flesh.

As potatoes have a neutral starchy flavor, they serve as a good complement to many meals. Their texture varies slightly depending upon their preparation, but it can be generally described as rich and creamy.


Potatoes originated in the Andean mountain region of South America. Researchers estimate that potatoes have been cultivated by the Indians living in these areas for between 4,000 and 7,000 years. Unlike many other foods, potatoes were able to be grown at the high altitudes typical of this area and therefore became a staple food for these hardy people.

How to Select and Store

While potatoes are often conveniently packaged in a plastic bag, it is usually better to buy them individually from a bulk display. Not only will this allow you to better inspect the potatoes for signs of decay or damage, but many times, the plastic bags are not perforated and cause a build up of moisture that can negatively affect the potatoes.

Potatoes should be firm, well shaped and relatively smooth, and should be free of decay that often manifests as wet or dry rot. In addition, they should not be sprouting or have green coloration since this indicates that they may contain the toxic alkaloid solanine that has been found to not only impart an undesirable taste, but can also cause a host of different health conditions such as circulatory and respiratory depression, headaches and diarrhea.

Sometimes stores will offer already cleaned potatoes. These should be avoided since when their protective coating is removed by washing, potatoes are more vulnerable to bacteria. In addition, already cleaned potatoes are also more expensive, and since you will have to wash them again before cooking, you will be paying an unnecessary additional cost.

Since new potatoes are harvested before they are fully mature, they are much more susceptible to damage. Be especially careful when purchasing these to buy ones that are free from discoloration and injury.

The ideal way to store potatoes is in a dark, dry place between 45°F to 50°F between 7-10°C) as higher temperatures, even room temperature, will cause the potatoes to sprout and dehydrate prematurely. While most people do not have root cellars that provide this type of environment, to maximize the potato's quality and storage, you should aim to find a place as close as possible to these conditions. Storing them in a cool, dark closet or basement may be suitable alternatives. Potatoes should definitely not be exposed to sunlight as this can cause the development of the toxic alkaloid solanine to form.

Potatoes should not be stored in the refrigerator, as their starch content will turn to sugar giving them an undesirable taste. In addition, do not store potatoes near onions, as the gases that they each emit will cause the degradation of one another. Wherever you store them, they should be kept in a burlap or paper bag.

Mature potatoes stored properly can keep up to two months. Check on the potatoes frequently, removing any that have sprouted or shriveled as spoiled ones can quickly affect the quality of the others. New potatoes are much more perishable and will only keep for one week.

Cooked potatoes will keep fresh in the refrigerator for several days. Potatoes do not freeze well.

How to Enjoy

For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

Tips for Preparing Potatoes:

The potato skin is a concentrated source of dietary fiber, so to get the most nutritional value from this vegetable, don't peel it and consume both the flesh and the skin. Just scrub the potato under cold running water right before cooking and then remove any deep eyes or bruises with a paring knife. If you must peel it, do so carefully with a vegetable peeler, only removing a thin layer of the skin and therefore retaining the nutrients that lie just below the skin.

Potatoes should be cleaned and cut right before cooking in order to avoid the discoloration that occurs with exposure to air. If you cannot cook them immediately after cutting, place them in a bowl of cold water to which you have added a little bit of lemon juice, as this will prevent their flesh from darkening and will also help to maintain their shape during cooking. As potatoes are also sensitive to certain metals that may cause them to discolor, avoid cooking them in iron or aluminum pots or using a carbon steel knife to cut them.

Nutritional Profile

Potatoes are a very good source of vitamin C. They are also a good source of vitamin B6, copper, potassium, manganese, and dietary fiber.

For an in-depth nutritional profile click here: Potato.

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, an in-depth nutritional profile for Potatoes is also available. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling."

Are potatoes nutritious?
YES! Potatoes are a low calorie, fat and cholesterol free vegetable high in vitamin C, potassium and a good source of vitamin B6 and dietary fiber. Visit the nutrition section of www.healthypotato.com for more information.

Are potatoes fattening?
NO! It's all those delicious toppings we use that add calories and fat. The potato contains zero fat and a 5.3-ounce potato is only 100 calories. Check out "Healthy Potato Consumer Recipe Brochure" nutrition pamphlet for some low-fat topping ideas.

Is it safe to eat the potato skin?

Absolutely! In fact, we recommend it. The skin of the potato contains the majority of the potato's fiber, and many of the nutrients are located close to the skin. Wash the potato thoroughly, cut away green discoloration and/or sprouts and enjoy your potato with the skin on.

Why does the potato selection vary at grocery stores throughout the year?

Here are discussion questions.

How do you grow potatoes?
How do you select a potato?
Are potatoes a nutritious food?
How should potatoes be stored?
How do you prepare a potato?
Why do potatoes grow sprouts?
Why do some potatoes become discolored after they are cooked?
What is the difference between starchy and waxy potatoes?
How popular are potatoes?
How are all of the potatoes used?

Do you like potatoes?
How important are potatoes?
What do you know about the nutritional value of potatoes?
How do potatoes compare to other staple foods like rice, pasta and bread?
What different ways are there to cook potatoes?
Do you prefer baked, roast, boiled, mashed or jacket potatoes?
How do you make a potato salad?
What do you know about how potatoes grow?
Are you a meat and potatoes person?

Potato Nutrition Information Table
Serving size = 148 grams or 5.2 ounces Russet Norkotah Russet Burbank Red Yellow White
Calories 110 110 100 120 110
Calories from Fat 0 0 0 0 0
Total Fat 0 0 0 0 0
Sodium 10 mg 15 mg 0 mg 0 mg 0 mg
Potassium 680 mg 640 mg 710 mg 810 mg 700 mg
Total Carbohydrates 22 g 23 g 23 g 26 g 25 g
Dietary Fiber 3 g 2 g 2 g 2 g 2 g
Protein 4 g 4 g 3 g 3 g 3 g
Vitamin C 8 % 10 % 10 % 15 % 10 %
Riboflavin 4 % 2 % 0 % 12 % 2 %
Iron 40 % 10 % 4 % 4 % 4 %
Vitamin B6 15 % 15 % 15 % 15 % 10 %
Thiamin 6 % 10 % 8 % 6 % 6 %
Niacin 8 % 10 % unavailable unavailable unavailable
Folic Acid 4 % 4 % unavailable unavailable unavailable


What is sugar?
What happens when you heat a sugar solution?
What are saccharides?
What is sugar?

The white stuff we know as sugar is sucrose, a molecule composed of 12 atoms of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, and 11 atoms of oxygen (C12H22O11). Like all compounds made from these three elements, sugar is a carbohydrate. It’s found naturally in most plants, but especially in sugarcane and sugar beets—hence their names.

Sucrose is actually two simpler sugars stuck together: fructose and glucose. In recipes, a little bit of acid (for example, some lemon juice or cream of tartar) will cause sucrose to break down into these two components.

If you look closely at dry sugar, you’ll notice it comes in little cubelike shapes. These are sugar crystals, orderly arrangements of sucrose molecules.

Under a microscope, you can see that sugar crystals aren’t cubes, exactly, but oblong and slanted at both ends. (Image courtesy of Nutrition and Food Management Dept., Oregon State University)

What happens when you heat a sugar solution?

When you add sugar to water, the sugar crystals dissolve and the sugar goes into solution. But you can’t dissolve an infinite amount of sugar into a fixed volume of water. When as much sugar has been dissolved into a solution as possible, the solution is said to be saturated.

The saturation point is different at different temperatures. The higher the temperature, the more sugar that can be held in solution.

When you cook up a batch of candy, you cook sugar, water, and various other ingredients to extremely high temperatures. At these high temperatures, the sugar remains in solution, even though much of the water has boiled away. But when the candy is through cooking and begins to cool, there is more sugar in solution than is normally possible. The solution is said to be supersaturated with sugar.

Supersaturation is an unstable state. The sugar molecules will begin to crystallize back into a solid at the least provocation. Stirring or jostling of any kind can cause the sugar to begin crystallizing.

Why are crystals undesirable in some candy recipes—and how do you stop them from forming?

Sugars are organic compounds that occur naturally in most plants. The white granules of sugar that you're probably used to seeing are a type of sugar compound known as "sucrose." Most of the sugar we eat comes from sugarcane plants or sometimes sugar beets. Sugar is typically used to add sweetness to the foods it is in and it is the main ingredients in most types of candy.

When it comes to nutrition, it’s important to know that sugars are simple carbohydrates which do not contain the nutrients of more complex carbohydrates such as those found in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Additionally, excess sugar is converted into fat by the body. Sugar can also be a problem when it comes to your teeth: Sugars in the mouth which aren’t properly brushed or flossed away cause the natural bacteria in your mouth to produce acid, leading to a greater chance of getting cavities. – For these reasons, most nutrition experts recommend eating sugar in moderation. Sugar is a simple, edible, crystalline carbohydrate. Sugar comes in many different forms, however, all types have a sweet flavor. The main types of sugar are sucrose, lactose and fructose. Common table sugar is typically sucrose which is extracted from cane or beets. Sugar is added to many foods, and drinks. The names of typical sugars end with -ose, as in glucose, dextrose, and fructose. Sucrose is made from glucose and fructose Fruit and honey contain fructose, while milk has lactose. Glucose is the type of sugar that circulates in our blood - often referred to as blood sugar. Plants make sugar Plants make sugar to store energy, a bit like we do with fat. Plants make sugar through a process called photosynthesis.

Plants take in CO2 from the air and water from the ground. The CO2 (carbon dioxide), together with water, chlorophyll and sunlight undergo a chemical process which produces sucrose (sugar) and oxygen.

Chorophyll is a green substance that allows the sun's energy to be absorbed more easily. Chorophyll also gives most plants their green look.

The chemical formula (equation) for the process of photosynthesis is:
12 CO2 + 11 H2O = C12H22O11 + 12 O2
    (CO2 is carbon dioxide)
    (H2O is water)
    (C12H22O11 is sucrose)
    (O2 is oxygen)
A long time ago sugar was only produced from sugar cane. In places like Europe, where it is too cold to grow sugar cane, sugar was extremely expensive. Sugar from sugar cane does not travel well. These days, sugar cane is transported in two stages - initially raw sugar is made locally and transported to colder countries, and there it is processed into white sugar.

These days sugar is much cheaper in colder countries because of beet, a type of root from which we can make sugar. Beet grows well in colder parts of the world.

Sugar is One of the sugars, pharmaceutical forms are compressible sugar and confectioner's sugar.

Sucrose is A nonreducing disaccharide made up of d-glucose and d-fructose obtained from sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum (family Gramineae), from several species of sorghum, and from the sugar beet, Beta vulgaris (family Chenopodiaceae); the common sweetener, used in pharmacy in the manufacture of products such as syrup and confections.

Fructose is A sugar that occurs naturally in fruits and honey. The dmonosaccharide is a 2-ketohexose that is the most important of the ketohexoses physiologically and one of the two products of sucrose hydrolysis; it is metabolized or converted to glycogen in the absence of insulin. Also referred to as fruit sugar, levoglucose, levulose, and d-arabino-2-hexulose.

Lactose is A reducing disaccharide present in mammalian milk and consisting of a galactosyl residue linked B1,4 to a glucopyranose; obtained from cow's milk and used in modified milk preparation, in food for infants and convalescents, and in pharmaceutical preparations; in large doses, acts as an osmotic diuretic and as a laxative. Human milk contains 6.7% lactose.

What are saccharides?

Saccharides, or carbohydrates, are sugars or starches. Saccharides consist of two basic compounds:
  • Aldehydes - composed of double-bonded carbon and oxygen atoms, plus a hydrogen atom.
  • Keytones - composed of double-bonded carbon and oxygen atoms, plus two additional carbon atoms.
There are several types of saccharides:
  • Monosaccharide - this is the smallest possible sugar unit, and include glucose, galactose or fructose. When we talk about blood sugar we are referring to glucose in the blood; glucose is a major source of energy for a cell. In human nutrition, galactose can be found most readily in milk and dairy products, while fructose is found mostly in vegetables and fruit.
  • Disaccharide - two monosaccharide molecules bonded together. Disaccharides are polysaccharides - "poly..." specifies any number higher than one, while "di..." specifies exactly two. Examples of disaccharides include lactose, maltose, and sucrose. If you bond one glucose molecule with a fructose molecule you get a sucrose molecule.

    If you bond one glucose molecule with a galactose molecule you get lactose, which is commonly found in milk.
  • Polysaccharide - a chain of two or more monosaccharides. The chain may be branched (molecule is like a tree with branches and twigs) or unbranched (molecule is a straight line with no twigs). Polysaccharide molecule chains may be made up of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are polymers. A simple compound is a monomer, while a complex compound is a polymer which is made of two or more monomers. In biology, when we talk about building blocks, we are usually talking about monomers.
Nearly all sugars have the chemical formula CnH2nOn ("n" is between 3 and 7).

The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6.

Different types of sugar

White sugar - essentially consists of pure sucrose. According to the sugar industry, there is no difference between white sugar that is derived from beet or cane. Some producers manufacture crystals of varying sizes, which may make people think they are different. Some say that smaller crystals are sweeter - but the industry says this is because smaller crystals dissolve more easily, leaving less undissolved sugar at the bottom of the cup.

There are different types of speciality white sugars:
  • Caster sugar - the crystals are tiny.
  • Icing sugar - super tiny crystals, the sugar is like dust.
  • Sugar cubes - lumps of sugar crystals stuck together with sugar syrup.
  • Preserving sugar - the crystals are especially large.
Nutritional value of white sugar per 100g (3.5oz):
  • Energy 1,619 kJ (387 kcal)
  • Carbohydrates 99.98 g
  • Sugars 99.91 g
  • Dietary fiber 0 g
  • Fat 0 g
  • Protein 0 g
  • Water 0.03 g
  • Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.019 mg
  • Calcium 1 mg
  • Iron 0.01 mg
  • Potassium 2 mg (0%)
Brown sugar - among the many types and styles, the main two are:
  • Sticky browns - originally, the type of mixture that comes out of a cane sugar crystallizing pan.
  • Free-flowing browns
Nutritional value of brown sugar per 100g (3.5oz):
  • Energy 1,576 kJ (377 kcal)
  • Carbohydrates 97.33 g
  • Sugars 96.21 g
  • Dietary fiber 0 g
  • Fat 0 g
  • Protein 0 g
  • Water 1.77 g
  • Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.008 mg
  • Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.007 mg
  • Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.082 mg
  • Vitamin B6 0.026 mg
  • Folate (Vit. B9) 1 µg
  • Calcium 85 mg
  • Iron 1.91 mg
  • Magnesium 29 mg
  • Phosphorus 22 mg
  • Potassium 346 mg
  • Sodium 39 mg
  • Zinc 0.18 mg
Syrups - there are many types; some made of pure sucrose are commonly used in food processing to add flavor and color. Golden syrup is made by breaking down the disaccharide sucrose to its constituent sugars - glucose and fructose - a process called inversion. Inversion helps prevent crystallization during storage. Treacle is made from molasses.

Sugars and your diet

Dietary sugar (sugar that we eat) can be naturally occurring, as in fruit (fructose) or milk (lactose) or added. Added sugars are those we add at the table, as well as sugars and syrups added to foods in processing and preparation.

Foods with added sugars - these include sodas (soft fizzy drinks), sugars, candy, cakes, cookies, pies, fruit drinks, desserts, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and many more.

Too much sugar - a growing number of people have much more sugar than they need. Most people underestimate their daily sugar intake. Until recently this was a problem in mainly industrialized nations, but now it is becoming major health problem in most parts of the world.

According to the American Heart Foundation added sugars "contribute zero nutrients, but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds, or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health."

Hidden ingredients - to bring down your daily added sugar intake you will need to read the labels of foods carefully. 1 gram of sugar contains 4 calories, so any innocent-looking tasty morsel with 20 grams of sugar will instantly add 80 calories to that serving, on top of all the other ingredients.

Look carefully at the list of ingredients for added sugars, which may be included under several names, many ending with the letters ose, such as sucrose, maltose, etc., as well as high fructose corn syrup, molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey, or fruit juice concentrates. When you have become used to checking ingredients, you will be better prepared to cut down your added sugar intake.

One 12-ounce can of regular soda contains 8 teaspoons of sugar - or 130 empty calories. Empty calories means calories with no nutritional value.

The fact that sugar solidifies into crystals is extremely important in candy making. There are basically two categories of candies - crystalline (candies which contain crystals in their finished form, such as fudge and fondant), and noncrystalline, or amorphous (candies which do not contain crystals, such as lollipops, taffy, and caramels). Recipe ingredients and procedures for noncrystalline candies are specifically designed to prevent the formation of sugar crystals, because they give the resulting candy a grainy texture. One way to prevent the crystallization of sucrose in candy is to make sure that there are other types of sugar—usually, fructose and glucose—to get in the way. Large crystals of sucrose have a harder time forming when molecules of fructose and glucose are around. Crystals form something like Legos locking together, except that instead of Lego pieces, there are molecules. If some of the molecules are a different size and shape, they won’t fit together, and a crystal doesn’t form. A simple way to get other types of sugar into the mix is to "invert" the sucrose (the basic white sugar you know well) by adding an acid to the recipe. Acids such as lemon juice or cream of tartar cause sucrose to break up (or invert) into its two simpler components, fructose and glucose. Another way is to add a nonsucrose sugar, such as corn syrup, which is mainly glucose. Some lollipop recipes use as much as 50% corn syrup; this is to prevent sugar crystals from ruining the texture. Fats in candy serve a similar purpose. Fatty ingredients such as butter help interfere with crystallization—again, by getting in the way of the sucrose molecules that are trying to lock togeter into crystals. Toffee owes its smooth texture and easy breakability to an absence of sugar crystals, thanks to a large amount of butter in the mix.
Here are further guidelines.

Spices, Herbs, Seasonings
What is the difference between an herb and a spice?

The Answer:

The terms "spice" and "herb" have both been used to describe parts of plants (possibly dried) that are used to enhance the flavor or taste of food. In addition, herbs have been used to augment cosmetics, preserve foods and cure illnesses.

Spices and herbs can consist of flower buds, bark, seeds, leaves or many other parts of a plant. Over time the definitions for spices and herbs have changed a bit. In the past, spices have been categorized as fragrant, aromatic plant products like cinnamon, cloves, ginger and pepper. These spices are found in plants grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. While herbs have always been recognized as the more green, leafy products like mint, rosemary and thyme grown in more temperate areas.

But according to the _________, today spices have become known as "any dried plant product used primarily for seasoning purposes." This all-inclusive definition seems to cover a wide range of plants like herbs, spice seeds and even dehydrated vegetables and spice blends.

  1. Anise seed powder, Vilayati Saunf powder

    Powdered aniseed is used to flavour confectionary, breads and cakes, vegetables, stewed fruits, cheese dishes etc.
    Use the powder at the end of cooking to add aroma to your dals, curries, chaats etc.

  2. Chillies (Ground Kashmiri)

  3. Cinnamon (dalchini)(Ground)

  4. Cumin (Jeera)

  5. Cardamoms (Ground green)

  6. Ground black cardamoms

  7. Ground cloves

  8. Ground black peppercorns

  9. Ground fennel seeds
    Fennel Seeds (Saunf)

  10. Saunth (ginger powder).

    Dried Ginger Powder

    Saunth or dry ginger powder

  11. Salt

  12. Coriander Powder (Dhaniya)

  13. Tumeric Powder

Allium fistulosum

Which onion plants should I order?
When should I order my plants?
How many plants are in a bunch or bundle?
If I can't plant when I receive my plants, how do I store them?
When should I plant?
Should I water the onions when I first plant them?
How often should I fertilize?
Should I pull the dirt back from the onion when it starts to bulb?
How do I know when my onions are ready for harvest?
How do I harvest?
Any tips for storage?
Botanical name: Allium cepa
Plant type: Vegetable
Soil type: Any, Loamy
Soil pH: Neutral?
Onions are a cold-season crop, easy to grow because of their hardiness.
We recommend using onion sets, which can be planted without worry of frost damage and have a higher success rate than direct seed or transplants.
Onions grow well on raised beds or raised rows at least 4 inches high.


Which onion plants should I order?
Onion plants come in three different daylengths: short, intermediate, and long.

When should I order my plants?
You can order your onion plants whenever you like, and we'll ship at your requested date. If you're ordering from our catalog, your customer number is located on the back cover, above or beside your name on the mailing label. Payment is required when your order is placed, so that your plants will be reserved for you to ship on the day you requested.


How many plants are in a bunch or bundle?
You can grow onions from transplants, sets, or seeds.

We use the term bunch or bundle interchangeably, but each contains approximately 50-75 plants. We try to ship nice, large plants that will quickly establish a root system.

If I can't plant when I receive my plants, how do I store them?
When you receive your plants, immediately take them out of the box and spread them out in a cool, dry area. DO NOT PUT THEM IN WATER OR SOIL while waiting to plant. The plants are in a dormant state, and should be planted as soon as possible. The roots and tops may begin to dry out, but don't be alarmed—as a member of the lily family, the onion can live for three weeks off of the bulb.

When should I plant?
The recommended planting time is 4-6 weeks before your last average frost date, if the weather is agreeable.

Onion Plant Care

Should I water the onions when I first plant them?
Yes, the transplants should be watered immediately after being planted. They won't grow new roots unless the soil is loose and moist, so it's important to maintain adequate moisture. Avoid overhead irrigation, which encourages foliage diseases.

How often should I fertilize?
The first application should be three weeks after planting; then repeat the process every 2-3 weeks. Stop fertilizing when the onions start to bulb, which is about three weeks before harvest.

Should I pull the dirt back from the onion when it starts to bulb?
The bulbing process is gradual, and there's no reason to pull dirt away as long as you keep the soil loose. In fact, pulling the dirt away can cause sunscalding (sunburn) of the onion skin. Remember that the bulbing process requires more moisture in any case; if you increase watering, the soil should remain loose.

Harvesting and Storage

How do I know when my onions are ready for harvest?
An onion is fully mature when the top falls over. Bending the top over will only stop the bulbing process, so don't be too eager to harvest. You don't have to wait until all the tops fall completely over to harvest, but harvesting early may cause the onion to sprout during storage since it hasn't finished the bulbing process.

How do I harvest?
Once the tops have fallen over, pull the onions out of the ground and let them dry in the garden for a few days. It's a good idea to cover the bulb of one onion with the top of another to prevent sunscald. When you remove the onions from the field, clip the roots at the base and clip the tops as well, but leave 3/4-inch of the neck to seal and protect the interior from decay. Discard any decaying onions. Never let a single decayed onion touch another, since the decaying process will spread.

Any tips for storage?
Store your onions in a cool, dry place. Sweet onions store for a maximum of three months, but storage types will last throughout the winter. The best way to store them is in mesh nettings or pantyhose, hung in a well ventilated area.


Select a location with full sun where your onions won't be shaded by other plants. Soil needs to be well-drained, loose, and rich in nitrogen; compact soil affects bulb development. Till in aged manure or fertilizer the fall before planting. Onions are heavy feeders and need constant nourishment to produce big bulbs.
At planting time, you can mix in some nitogen fertilizer, too, and side dress every few weeks until the bulbing process begins.
Seeding? Onion seeds are short-lived. If planting seeds indoors, start with fresh seeds each year. Start seeds indoors about 6 weeks before transplanting.
Plant onions as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring, usually late March or April. Make sure temperature doesn’t go below 20 degrees F.
For sets or transplants, plant the smaller sets 1 inch deep, with 4 to 5 inches between each plant and in rows 12 to 18 inches apart.
Think of onions as a leaf crop, not a root crop. When planting onion sets, don’t bury them more than one inch under the soil; if more than the bottom third of the bulb is underground, bulb growth can be restricted. Practice crop rotation with onions.


Fertilize every few weeks with nitrogen to get big bulbs. Cease fertilizing when the onions push the soil away an
d the bulbing process has started. Do not put the soil back around the onions; the bulb needs to emerge above the soil. Generally, onions do not need consistent watering if mulch is used. About one inch of water per week (including rain water) is sufficient. If you want sweeter onions, water more.
Onions will look healthy even if they are bone dry, be sure to water during drought conditions.
Make sure soil is well-drained. Mulch will help retain moisture and stifle weeds.
Cut or pull any onions that send up flower stalks; this means that the onions have "bolted" and are done.


To control thrips—tiny insects about as fat as a sewing needle—take a dark piece of paper into the garden and knock the onion tops against it; if thrips are present, you will spot their tan-colored bodies on the paper. A couple of treatments with insecticidal soap kills them. Follow the package directions. Spray the plants twice, three days apart, and the thrips should disappear.
Onion Maggots: Cover your emerging onion crop with a fine mesh netting. Seal it by mounding soil around the edges. The onion maggot likes to lay its eggs at the base of plants, so the netting should prevent that. You should also keep mulch away because the insects like decaying organic matter, and make sure you completely harvest your onions as the season progresses. Onion maggots are usually a problem in very rainy periods, so these precautions may be unnecessary if you have a dry season.


When onions start to mature, the tops become yellow and begin to fall over. At that point, bend the tops down or even stomp on them to speed the final ripening process.
Loosen the soil to encourage drying, and after a few days turn them up and let them cure on dry ground. Always handle them very carefully—the slightest bruise will encourage rot to set in.
When tops are brown, pull the onions.
Be sure to harvest in late summer, before cool weather. Mature onions may spoil in fall weather.
Allow onions to dry for several weeks before you store them in a root cellar or any other storage area. Spread them out on an open screen off the ground to dry.
Store at 40 to 50 degrees F (4 to 10 degrees C) in braids or with the stems broken off.
Mature, dry-skinned bulbs like it cool and dry, so don't store them with apples or potatoes.

Recommended Varieties

Onion varieties are classified into two categories: Long-day, best in the North, and short-day, best for the South. ‘Yellow Sweet Spanish’ long-day hybrid, large round shape, yellow-white. ‘Stuttgarter’ short-day variety sold in sets, early maturity with slightly flat shape, yellow.

Scientific Name(s): Allium cepa L. Family: Liliaceae (lilies).

Common Name(s): Onion , Bulbus Allii Cepae , common onion , garden onion . Topical commercial preparations include Contractubex and Mederma .


Onion has potential in treating cardiovascular disease, hyperglycemia, and stomach cancer, although few quality clinical trials are available to support these uses. Topical preparations have been evaluated for the prevention of surgical scarring with varying results.


The onion plant is a perennial herb growing to about 1.2 m in height, with 4 to 6 hollow, cylindrical leaves. On top of the long stalks, greenish-white flowers are present in the form of solitary umbels growing to 2.5 cm wide. The seeds of the plant are black and angular. The underground bulb, which is used medicinally, is comprised of fleshy leaf sheaths forming a thin-skinned capsule, and varies greatly in size (2 to 20 cm). Shape (flattened, spherical, or pear-shaped) and color depend on the variety. 1 , 2 , 3


The onion is one of the world's leading vegetable crops, believed to have been domesticated in central and western Asia. Onions were used as early as 5,000 years ago in Egypt, as depicted on ancient monuments; ancient Greek and Roman records also make references to the onion. Onions were consumed throughout Europe during the Middle Ages and were later thought to guard against evil spirits and the plague, probably because of their strong odor. Folk healers traditionally used onions to prevent infections, and an onion and garlic concoction cooked in milk was used as a European folk remedy for congestion. Onion skin dye has also been used for egg and cloth coloring in the Middle East and Europe. Christopher Columbus is said to have introduced the plant to North America on his 1492 expedition. Onions are routinely used in homeopathic medicine. 2 , 3 , 4


Onions contain 89% water, 1.5% protein, and vitamins B 1 , B 2 , and C, along with potassium and selenium. Polysaccharides such as fructosans, saccharose, and others are also present, as are peptides, flavonoids (mostly quercetin), and essential oil. Methods for the qualitative assessment of the flavonoids have been detailed, and quercetin glycosides have been shown to be heat-stable and transferable to cooking water.

Onion contains numerous sulfur compounds, including thiosulfinates and thiosulfonates; cepaenes; S-oxides; S,S-dioxides; mono-, di-, and tri-sulfides; and sulfoxides. Mincing or crushing the bulb releases cysteine sulfoxide from cellular compartments, making contact with the enzyme alliinase from the adjacent vacuoles. Hydrolysis results with the release of reactive intermediate sulfenic acid compounds and then to the various sulfur compounds. 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9

Here are further guidelines.


Pictures of all tomato varieties
Tomato Plants All Varieties A-Z
Recommended Varieties
Cooking Notes
What is the best tomato for my area?
What is the difference between “heirloom” and “hybrid” tomatoes?
What is the difference between “indeterminate” and “determinate” tomatoes?
What does “days to maturity” mean?
What does “disease resistance” mean?
Where and when to plant?
How to plant?
Continuing care?
When to harvest?
When do tomatoes set fruit?
What is the difference between Determinate and Indeterminate?
What do the letters on tomato tags mean?

What is the best tomato for my area?
Big Beef Tomato

Sun: Full sun
Harvest Size: 12 to 16 ounces
Plant Size: 5 to 6 feet
Plant Type: Indeterminate
Fruit size: 12 to 16 oz.
Matures: 73 days after planting
Spacing: 36 inches apart

Planting Instructions
Care Tips/Maintenance
Harvest Instructions
Storage Instructions
Prep/Serving Information
Preserving Information

What is the difference between “heirloom” and “hybrid” tomatoes?
Hybrid tomatoes are cross bred from two or more different plants and they are created for a particular purpose (disease resistance, color, shape, etc.). Their seeds will revert back to one of the parents, so they are not reliable to grow from saved seed. Heirlooms are open-pollinated and the seeds have been handed down through generation of growers, and they are at least 50 years old. They are valued for their taste, unusual markings color and shape. They can be grown from saved seed and replicate the original plant.

What is the difference between “indeterminate” and “determinate” tomatoes?
Determinate, or “bush” tomatoes grow to 3-4 feet. They stop growing when fruit sets on the top bud. Fruit ripens at about the same time over a 4-6 week period. They need little support and are well suited for container gardening. Indeterminate tomatoes will grow and produce fruit until they freeze. They can grow from 6-12 feet tall and they need strong support.

What does “days to maturity” mean?
It means the number of days from transplanting the seedlings into the garden until the first appearance of mature fruit.

What does “disease resistance” mean?
The ability of a plant to withstand attack from such things as fungi,viruses, and bacterias is it’s level of disease resistance. The common disease resistance in our area (Marin County) is from verticillium wilt (V), fusarium wilt (F), and nematode (N).

Where and when to plant?
Plant 3 to 4 weeks after the frost free date in your area when the night time temperature and soil are about 55 degrees (around May 1). Choose the sunniest spot–tomatoes need a minimum of 6 hours of sun each day. Provide well draining soil because good tasting fruit comes from rich, healthy, well amended soil. Place plants about 3 feet apart.

How to plant?
Dig a hole to accommodate the plant up to the top 2-3 inches of foliage (new growth will form on buried stems). Remove any flowers or buds. Add compost and fertilizer (pellet form of a balanced fertilizer) to the hole. Place plant in the hole, replace the soil and water well at the base of the plant. Stake your tomato at the time of planting. Then mulch, mulch, much!

Continuing care?
You may choose to feed again at the time of fruit set . Use a fertilizer higher in phosphorus rather than nitrogen. Too much nitrogen will give you lovely foliage, but less fruit. Cut watering back to once a week (about 1 inch of water) as plants mature. Potted plants will need more frequent watering. Do not over-water or over- fertilize, and keep the foliage dry to prevent disease.

When to harvest?
Harvest when the fruit is well colored and soft, but not mushy. As tomatoes begin; to color, they can be picked to finish ripening indoors. Tomatoes will be ready to harvest about 6 weeks after they start to blossom.

When do tomatoes set fruit?
The smaller the tomato, the earlier it will bear fruit. Tags will tell days to harvest. See our tomato chart that tells how many days to harvest & if the tomato bears fruit early, mid- season or late. What is the difference between Determinate and Indeterminate?
Determinate varieties, many also called “bush,” are varieties that are bred to grow to a compact height, approximately 4 feet. The plants stop growing when fruit sets on the ter- minal or top bud, ripen all their crop at or near the same time (usually over a two week period), and then die. Indeterminate varieties are also called “vining” tomatoes. The plants grow and produce fruit until killed by frost and can reach heights of six feet (or more). They will bloom, set new fruit and ripen fruit throughout the growing season. What do the letters on tomato tags mean?
A letter or series of letters means that the plant has been bred for disease resistance.
V Verticillium Wilt
F Fusarium Wilt
FF Fusarium, races 1 and 2
FFF Fusarium, races 1, 2, and 3
N Nematodes
A Alternaria
T Tobacco Mosaic Virus
St Stemphylium (Gray Leaf Spot)
TSWV Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

Botanical name: Lycopersicon esculentum

Sun exposure: Full Sun

Soil type: Loamy

Soil pH: Acidic

This vine plant is fairly easy to grow and will produce a bumper crop with proper care. Its uses are versatile, however, tomatoes are susceptible to a range of pests and diseases.


If you're planting seeds (versus purchasing transplants), you'll want to start your seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the average last spring frost date. See our post on "Tomatoes From Seed the Easy Way."
Select a site with full sun and well-drained soil. For northern regions, is is VERY important that your site receives at least 6 hours of sun. For souther regions, light afternoon shade will help tomatoes survive and thrive.
Two weeks before transplanting seedlings outdoors, till soil to about 1 foot and mix in aged manure, compost, or fertilizer. Harden off transplants for a week before moving outdoors.
Transplant after last spring frost when the soil is warm. See our Best Planting Dates for Transplants for your region. Establish stakes or cages in the soil at the time of planting. Staking keeps developing fruit off the ground, while caging let’s the plant hold itself upright. Some sort of support system is recommended, but sprawling can also produce fine crops if you have the space, and if the weather cooperates.
Plant seedlings two feet apart.
Pinch off a few of the lower branches on transplants, and plant the root ball deep enough so that the remaining lowest leaves are just above the surface of the soil.
Water well to reduce shock to the roots.


Water generously for the first few days.
Water well throughout growing season, about 2 inches per week during the summer. Keep watering consistent! Mulch five weeks after transplanting to retain moisture.
To help tomatoes through periods of drought, find some flat rocks and place one next to each plant. The rocks pull up water from under the ground and keep it from evaporating into the atmosphere.
Fertilize two weeks prior to first picking and again two weeks after first picking.
If using stakes, prune plants by pinching off suckers so that only a couple stems are growing per stake.
Practice crop rotation from year to year to prevent diseases that may have over wintered.


Tomatoes are susceptible to insect pests, especially tomato hornworms and whiteflies. Link to our pest & problem pages below. Aphids
Flea Beetles
Tomato Hornworm
Blossom-End Rot

Late Blight is a fungal disease that can strike during any part of the growing season. It will cause grey, moldy spots on leaves and fruit which later turn brown. The disease is spread and supported by persistent damp weather. This disease will overwinter, so all infected plants should be destroyed. See our blog on "Avoid Blight With the Right Tomato." Tobacco Mosaic Virus creates distorted leaves and causes young growth to be narrow and twisted, and the leaves become mottled with yellow. Unfortunately, infected plants should be destroyed (but don't put them in your compost pile). Cracking: When fruit growth is too rapid, the skin will crack. This usually occurs in uneven water or uneven moisture due to weather conditions (very rainy periods mixed with dry periods). Keep moisture levels constant with consistent watering and mulching.


Leave your tomatoes on the vine as long as possible. If any fall off before they appear ripe, place them in a paper bag with the stem up and store them in a cool, dark place.
Never place tomatoes on a sunny windowsill to ripen; they may rot before they are ripe!
The perfect tomato for picking will be firm and very red in color, regardless of size, with perhaps some yellow remaining around the stem. A ripe tomato will be only slightly soft.
If your tomato plant still has fruit when the first hard frost threatens, pull up the entire plant and hang it upside down in the basement or garage. Pick tomatoes as they redden.
Never refrigerate fresh tomatoes. Doing so spoils the flavor and texture that make up that garden tomato taste. To freeze, core fresh unblemished tomatoes and place them whole in freezer bags or containers. Seal, label, and freeze. The skins will slip off when they defrost.

Recommended Varieties

Tomatoes grow in all sizes, from tiny "currant" to "cherry" to large "beefsteak." There are hundreds of varieties to suit different climates and tastes. Here are a few of our favorites:
‘Amish Paste’: Large paste tomatoes, good slicers.
‘Brandywine’: A beefsteak with perfect acid-sweet combination. Many variants are available.
‘Matt’s Wild Cherry’: Foolproof in any climate, cherries bear abundant fruit in high or low temps and in rain or drought.

For more about tomato varieties, see our post on "Tomato Trials: from blue to grafted; what grew this summer."


Broiled Parmesan Tomatoes
Deb's Fresh Tomato Sauce
Carrot-Tomato Bisque
Fried Green Tomatoes
Blue Corn Chips with Goat Cheese, Corn, and Tomato Salsa
Tomato Jam
Pasta with Tuna, Tomatoes, and Olives

Cooking Notes

Capture the garden-fresh taste of tomatoes all year long! See this helpful post on how to can tomatoes.
Here are further guidelines.


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Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.

Agricultural Machinery and Equipments
Tractor and power
Soil cultivation
Fertilizing & Pest Control
Produce sorter
Harvesting / post-harvest
Hay making
Animal Feeding
Obsolete farm machinery

Fruits and Vegetables
      American treal
      Maharaji apples
    Beans (Yard-long, Adzuka, Fava beans)
    Blackeyed Pea
    Bok Choy
    Brussels Sprouts
    Chili Peppers
    Cole Crops
    Daikon Radish
    Edible Flowers
    English Pea
    Globe Artichoke
    Hybrid Varieties and Saving Seeds
    Japanese Eggplant
    Palm Dates
    Pigeon Pea
    Snow, Edible-Pod, and Sugar Snap Peas
    Spaghetti Squash
    Sweet Potato
    Swiss Chard
    Wasta Haakh

The Difference Between Plantains & Bananas

Plantains Bananas
•Starchy •Sweet
•Used as a vegetable •Eaten as a fruit
•Longer than bananas •Shorter than plantains
•Thicker skin •Thinner skin
•Resemble green bananas, but may be green, yellow or black •Color is green when not fully ripe, yellow when ripe

What is a Plantain?
Plantains are a member of the banana family. They are a starchy, low in sugar variety that is cooked before serving as it is unsuitable raw. It is used in many savory dishes somewhat like a potato would be used and is very popular in Western Africa and the Caribbean countries. It is usually fried or baked.

The plantain (also called plátano), a very large, firm variety of banana, is also referred to as a "cooking banana" and is extremely popular in Latin America as well as parts of Africa, Asia and Kashmir. Its skin ranges in color from green to yellow to brownish black; its flesh, from cream to salmon-colored. Whereas the sweet banana is eaten ripe, the plantain is typically cooked when green. It has a mild, almost squashlike flavor and is used much as a potato would be, in a vegetable side dish. If it's allowed to ripen, the plantain has a slightly sweet flavor and a soft, spongy texture when cooked. Bananas are high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fats; they're also rich in potassium and vitamin C.

Plantains are sometimes referred to as the pasta and potatoes of the Caribbean. Sold in the fresh produce section of the supermarket, they usually resemble green bananas but ripe plantains may be black in color. This vegetable-banana can be eaten and tastes different at every stage of development. The interior color of the fruit will remain creamy, yellowish or lightly pink. When the peel is green to yellow, the flavor of the flesh is bland and its texture is starchy. As the peel changes to brown or black, it has a sweeter flavor and more of a banana aroma, but still keeps a firm shape when cooked.

The plantain averages about 65% moisture content and the banana averages about 83% moisture content. Since hydrolysis, the process by which starches are converted to sugars, acts fastest in fruit of higher moisture content it converts starches to sugars faster in bananas than it does in plantains. A banana is ready to eat when the skin is yellow whereas a plantain is not ready to eat "out of hand" until hydrolysis has progressed to the point where the skin is almost black.

Plantains grow best in areas with constant warm temperatures and protection from strong winds. They have been grown in scattered locations throughout Florida since the 16th century. Because of the occasional freezes, Florida is considered a marginal area for plantain production. They are available year round in the supermarket.

Many people confuse plantains with bananas, some of the differences are noted above. Although they look a lot like green bananas and are a close relative, plantains are very different. They are starchy, not sweet, and they are used as a vegetable in many recipes, especially in Latin America and Africa. Plantains are sold in the fresh produce section of the supermarket, they usually resemble green bananas; ripe plantains may be black in color. Plantains are longer than bananas and they have thicker skins. They also have natural brown spots and rough areas.

Plantain Nutritional Facts

Highly Nutritious
Good Source of Potassium and Vitamins A & C
High in Dietary Fiber
Energy Booster -
High in carbohydrates

Plantain Nutritional Information

Plantain Recipes

Fried Plantains
Plantain Soup
Plantain Chips
Grilled Ripe Plantains
Flourless Plantain Cake Recipe
Plantain Curry

Circulate this to all.

How to Grow Plantain
How to Grow Banana Plants

1.Dry beans (Phaseolus spp. including several species now in Vigna) Kidney bean, navy bean, pinto bean, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Lima bean, butter bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Adzuki bean, azuki bean (Vigna angularis) Mung bean, golden gram, green gram (Vigna radiata) Black gram, urad (Vigna mungo) Scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) Ricebean (Vigna umbellata) Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)

2.Dry broad beans (Vicia faba) Horse bean (Vicia faba equina) Broad bean (Vicia faba) Field bean (Vicia faba)

3.Dry peas (Pisum spp.) Garden pea (Pisum sativum var. sativum) Protein pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense)

4.Chickpea, garbanzo, Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)

5.Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean (Vigna unguiculata )

6.Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules (Cajanus cajan)

7.Lentil (Lens culinaris)

8.Bambara groundnut, earth pea (Vigna subterranea)

9.Vetch, common vetch (Vicia sativa)

10.Lupins (Lupinus spp.)

11.Minor pulses, including: Lablab, hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)
    Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sword bean (Canavalia gladiata)
    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)
    Velvet bean, cowitch (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis)
    Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus)
Here are further guidelines.
Last Updated: May 22, 2018