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Food & Agriculture

Take a look at this
Characteristics of Agricultural Land in Various Geographical Regions.
What are the main branches of agriculture and food sciences?

Agriculture and food sciences has branches like:
1. Botany (Plant Science)
2. Zoology (Animal Science)
3. Ecology
4. Evolution
5. Entomology
6. Genetics
7. Microbiology
8. Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
9. Paleontology
10. Taxonomy
11. Physiology
12. Cell biology/Cytology
13. Pesticides
14. Nurseries & Greenhouses
15. Fertilizers
16. Administrative issues
17. Irrigation
18. Grain warehouses
19. Soil Science
20. Grain Warehouse inspection program
21. Food Science
22. Slaughter of animals for food
23. Plant Protection
24. Radar Surveillance
How is agriculture and food sciences different from biology?
What are the different branches of biology?

1. Botany (Plant Science)
2. Zoology (Animal Science)
3. Ecology
4. Evolution
5. Entomology
6. Genetics
7. Microbiology
8. Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
9. Paleontology
10. Taxonomy
11. Physiology
12. Cell biology/Cytology
Guidance for Department Of Agriculture and Food Sciences.

Every state has a department of agriculture and food sciences.
Do you realize that there is utter confusion in the department of agriculture and food sciences?
You need to have proper urban planning and development.
Here are important guidelines.

Should forestry be merged with the department of agriculture and food sciences?

A state typically should have a total area of 360,000 to 560,000 square miles. Those that have less than this should merge with an adjacent state.

You should focus on wheat, paddy, corn, beans, potatoes, apples, and bananas. Other grains, pulses, vegetables, and fruits should get second consideration.

You should focus on consumable protein like poultry eggs, poultry meat, mutton, beef, fish, and milk. Poultry egg production and poultry meat production is a large-scale project.
Take a look at this.
Rice, Wheat, Pulses & Other Food Grains-Project report

Cereals, Maida, Maize, Rice, Rice Bran Extractions , Rice Mill Machinery , Sorghum, Soymeal, Suji, Parmal, Pulses, Wheat Flour, Wheat Machinery.
Poultry Farms-Project report
Sheep Industry-Project report
Cotton Industry-Project Report
Wool Industry-Project Report
Buffalo Industry-Project Report-
Cattle Industry-Project report
Processed Food & Snacks-Project report

Canned Food, Canned Fish, Snacks, Soup, Soup Concentrate, Soup Powder, Porridge, Potato Wafers, Processed Chicken, Processed Foods, Processed Seafoods, Processed Snacks, Fish & Sea Food, Frozen Fish, Frozen Meat, Frozen Shrimps.
Bakery & Confectionery Products-Project report

Bakery, Biscuits, Chocolate Chip, Chocolates, Cocoa, Confectionaries, Confectionery, Cookies, Deoiled Cake, Drinking Chocolates, Bread, Cakes, Malted Foods, Sweets, Pastry, Toffees
Cattle Feed Supplements-Project report

Cattle Feed, Animal Feed, Animal Feeding Stuffs, Fodder
Dry Fruits & Nuts-Project report

Dry fruits, Cashew Kernels , Cashew Nut, Cashews, Almonds, Roasted Dry Fruits, Peanuts, Groundnut, Walnut Kernels, Walnuts, Indian Peanuts, HPS Groundnuts
Dyes & Color Additives-Project report

AZO Dyes, Bleaching Machinery, Colours, Color Additives, Colour Additives, Cottex Dyeing, Dye intermediates, Dye Makers, Dyes, Dyestuffs, Cationic Dyestufs, Acid Dyes, Reactive Dyes, Pigments, Fabric Dyeing, Textile Dyeing, Vet Dye
Edible Oil & Allied Products-Project report

Coconut Oil, Cooking Fats, Cooking Oil, Cumin Seed Oil, Edible Oil , Castor Oil , Celery Seed Oil , Ajowan Oil , Margarine Oil , Refined Oil , Refined Vegetable Oil , Rice Bran Oil , Sesame Oil , Sunflower Oil , Mustard Oil , Groundnut Oil , Herb Oil, Vanaspathi Ghee, Vegetable Oil , Vegetable Oil , Oil Products, Table Margarine
Fisheries science

Trout, Carp Fish, Striped bass, Gulf menhaden, Cat Fish, Koi
Fertilizers-Project report

Bio Fertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers, Agriculture Fertilzers, Natural Fertilizers, Non-hazardous Bio Fertilizers, Non-toxic Fertilizers, Organic Fertilizers, Organic Manure, Fertiliser Mixtures, Fertilisers, Fertilizer Mixtures, Fertilizers, Urea Fertilizers
Flowers, Floriculture & Dried Flowers

Dried Floral Items , Dried Flowers , Dry Flower , Bouquets, Cane Flowers , Lotus Pods , shola Flowers , Palm Leaf , Floriculture, Flowers, Foliage, Handmade Flowers
Food Processing Plants, Machinery & Equipment-Project report

Bakery Equipment, Dairy Equipments, Dairy Farms Equipment, Food Grain Machine, Food Processing Equipment, Frying System, Spray Dryers
Fruits, Preserved & Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables-Project report

Fruits, Apples, Cherry, Bananas Fresh, Beans, Cucumbers, Dried Fruits , Dried Truffles , Dried Vegetables , Carrots, Lemon, Mandarins, Mangosteens, Meslin, Shallots, Spinach, Mixed Vegetables , Mushroom, Mushroom Spawn , Oranges Fresh , Papaya, Pineapple, Potatoes Fresh , Preserved Fruits , Preserved Vegetables , Radiata Dried, Fresh Apples , Fresh Asparagus , Fresh Fruits , Fresh Grapes , Fresh Oranges , Fresh Vegetables , Gherkins, Grapes, Fresh Turnips
Goat Industry-Project report
Marine Food Supplies-Project report

Dried Beche-de-mer, Dry Fish, Aqua Foods, Marine Food, Marine Products, Sea Cucumber, Sea Food, Shrimps, Prawns, Frozen Marine Products.
Meat & Poultry Food-Project report

Meat, Poultry Food, Egg, Livestock, Lyoners, Mortadella, Peppero, Frozen Meats.
Natural Dried, Live and Grafted Plants-Project report

Live Plants , Natural Dried Plants , Natural Plants grafted Plants
Other Agro Products-Project report

Bajra, Barley, Cane, Jaggery, Agro Commodities, Jaggery Powder , Sorbitol, Soya Meals , Starch, Sugar, Namkeens, Natural Honey, Papad, Flour, Foodstuffs, Glucose, Gluten, Groundnuts, Honey, Almonds, Beans, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Carrots, Fresh beans, Grapes, Guava, Oranges, Onions, Pomegranate, Rajmah, Spices, Walnut.
Pet-Use Products, Feeds, Pet Furniture & Allied Products-Project report

Dog Biscuits , Raw Hide Bones , Pet Feeds , Pet Products , Pet-Use Products , Equestarian Goods , Equestarian Harness
Pickles, Chutneys, Ketchups & Sauces-Project report

Chilly sauce , Chutney, Chutnies, Ketchups, Lemon Pickles , Mango Pickles , Sauces, Soya Sauce , Synth Vinegar , Mustard Sauce , Pepper Sauce , Pickles, Garlic Sauce , Tomato Ketchups , Tomato Sauce
Seeds, Buds, Plantation & Related Products-Project report

Basil Seed , Cumin seeds , Dill Seed , Buds, Cellery Seed , Hybrid Seeds , Seeds, Sesame Seeds , Sesbania Seed , Sunflower Seeds , Mustard Seeds , Oil Seeds , Plant Products , Plantation, Plants, Psyllium Seed , Fennel Seed , Fenugreek Seed , Herb Seeds , Tamarind Seed , Vegetable Seeds
Horse Industry-Project report
Spices & Derivatives-Project report

Black Pepper , Chilli Powder , Chillies, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander Powder , Cumin, Curry Powders , Dry Ginger , Dry Red Chilly , Elaichi, Cardamom, Chat Masala , Chatni, Anise, Indian Spices , , Salt, Spices, Spices From India, Onion Powder , Pepper Fenugreek , Seeds, Garam Masala , Ginger, Hot Spices , Turmeric, Turmeric Powder
Tea & Coffee-Project report

Black Tea , Coffee, Coffee Beans , Darjeeling Teas , Assam Teas , Indian Tea , Instant Coffee , Leaf Coffee , Leaf Tea, Packaged Tea , Green Tea , Tea , Tea Bags, CTC Teas
Let's examine agriculture.
Decades ago, there used to be ploughs or people used shovels and similar tools for agriculture. This used to take lots of labor and time as well.
Many people were involved in this type of employment.

Nowadays, there are tractors.
Work done by thousands of people can be and is completed by single tractor.
A single tractor has replaced thousands of people.

Work done by thousands of people can be and is completed by a single machine or machines. Work done by thousands of people can be and is completed in a comparatively shorter time period.
Fewer people and more technology is at work.

Will the tractor operator exclude others from harvest?
Should the tractor operator exclude others from harvest?
Will those in control of machines exclude others from harvest?
Should those in control of machines exclude others from harvest?
Is it justified?
Should the tractor operator exclude others not in the agriculture field from harvest?

Are people who have been replaced with machines unemployed? Or are they skilled employees to be utilised as per need of economy?
Who has the duty and responsibility to redirect their skill, knowledge, and experience?
The same is true in other types of industries.
Machines have and can replace thousands of workers.
That doesn't mean those workers are going to be excluded from harvest.

These are natural resources.
These natural resources have to be utilised and exploited to their capacity while using the latest advances in science and technology.
Their products have to be distributed fairly, equally, and uniformly.
Their products have to be distributed fairly as per consumer affairs and public distribution system.
Food Business

Food business is a formidable task. Expensive research must be done to derive a suitable recipe for commercial production. This is followed by tests that have to consider shelf life as well as the cost of the product. Quality has to be balanced against profits and the final decision is likely to be based on the market for which a food item is to be produced. To be a success, it is imperative that the food product be of high quality and fill a marketing niche.

Characteristics of a Successful Entrepreneur

The entrepreneur will need certain personal characteristics to be successful in establishing a food business. The characteristics common to successful entrepreneurs include:

A desire for responsibility
Confidence in your ability to succeed
Desire for immediate feedback
A high energy level
A need to accomplish goals
Strong organizational skills
A need for feelings of accomplishment and achievement
A high degree of commitment
A tolerance for uncertainty
The ability to be flexible
A desire to work hard
Total dedication to the business
A strong market demand for the product

Type of Product

One of the first considerations to make is what type of product will be produced such as a canned food, a baked good or a refrigerated product. Special food processing equipment, government registration and technical training are required to start a commercial canning facility. Regulations for producing a canned food item will differ depending on whether the product is low acid, acidified or acid.

Low-acid Foods: These foods � such as meat products, beans and corn � have a pH value (indicates acidity) greater than 4.6 and a water activity (aw) greater than 0.85 (measures free moisture in a food). At these levels the deadly clostridium botulinum microorganism could grow in foods that are improperly canned. They must be processed at proper temperatures under specified pressure in compliance with all Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations.

Acidified Foods: These products, such as pickled foods, have a water activity greater than 0.85 and have been acidified to a pH of less than 4.6 to prevent the growth of clostridium botulinum.

Acid Foods: These foods � such as fruits, jams and jellies � naturally have a pH below 4.6.


Entrepreneurs must be familiar with state and federal food regulations before starting a food business and must comply with the recommendation, for example South Carolina Food and Cosmetics Act. These regulations are available from the Consumer Services Division of the South Carolina Department of Agriculture, which is responsible for enforcing safe food manufacture and sale at the state level.

Other related world wide are encouraged to mail their details to

Food may not be manufactured in the home for distribution. Food sold at the place of production is under the inspection of the local Public Health Department. Food manufactured for wholesale distribution is under the supervision of the South Carolina. Department of Agriculture and must have a label approved from this state agency. Once the processing facility is built, a representative from this agency will make an inspection before start-up.

In addition to state requirements, most specialty foods are subject to federal regulations and International because products cross state boundaries during distribution. The federal agencies responsible for food safety are the FDA. A food processing operation should be designed and operated in accordance with �Good Manufacturing Practices� (GMP) regulations, which are available from FDA offices. All food plants, except meat and poultry, are subject to inspection by FDA to ensure compliance with these regulations. Specialty foods containing meat or poultry ingredients fall under the jurisdiction of Deaprtment of Agriculture. Meat and poultry food plants should be constructed and operated according to the �Meat and Poultry Inspection Program� that can be obtained from the South Carolina Meat & Poultry Inspection Department.

There are specific GMP regulations for canned low-acid and acidified foods. Commercial food manufacturers are required to register each new product with the FDA and file a full description (called a scheduled process) of the processes to be employed in the manufacture of the product. Copies of these regulations, the registration form and the scheduled process form can be obtained from the FDA offices. In addition, the processor must report any instances of spoilage; must have an established product recall plan; must have all operators of thermal-processing systems trained by attending a �Better Process Control School� at an approved university; and must maintain complete records of plant operations.

Basics of Product Development

Entrepreneurs should follow these basic steps in developing new food products.

Idea Stage:

The following questions need to be answered:

Does the product satisfy a consumer need?
Will it return a profit?
Will it be acceptable to consumers, wholesalers and retailers alike?
Is it unique?
Does it provide a new service to customers?
Do you have the production technology to develop the product?
Do you have the marketing skills to sell the product?
What products will it replace or compete against?

Development Stage: Food scientists are needed to solve shelf life and safety problems. They address questions such as: Will bacteria, mold, yeasts or pathogens be a concern?

Is the �browning reaction� (a chemical reaction between ingredients) a problem and, if so, can it be solved?

Is light a factor in product or quality deterioration? Can texture or mouth-feel be improved? Is rancidity a problem?

Taste Panel Stage: The taste panel stage should run concurrently with formula or recipe development. Using sensory evaluation test forms, an experienced panel should check quality parameters such as color, texture, appearance and flavor at various stages of product formulation to distinguish good from undesirable traits.

Consumer Sampling Stage: The consumer sampling stage is often neglected by food processors but can give valuable information about the product�s potential success. Actual sales after tasting reinforce the questionnaire. For instance, if 100 people say they will purchase but only five purchase the product, there may be some question about the truthfulness of the answers. Commercial demand for the product should be evaluated to determine if sufficient volume will be produced and sold to make the venture economically feasible.

Shelf-Life Stage: The shelf-life stage is extremely important because a processor must know how long a new product will keep under a variety of temperatures and other environmental conditions. Shelf-life loss may be due to chemical or microbial (bacteria, mold and yeast) spoilage. The studies are done by raising the temperature of the packaged product above normal storage conditions (110 to 120 �F). Although this is not as good as a prolonged shelf-life study at normal temperatures (75 to 80 �F), it does give some indication of product shelf life. Lot codes for recall and product liability are based on these studies.

Packaging Stage: This stage is especially important because the package often sells a new product. Consumers want colorful, attractive, conveniently packaged forms. Packaging should not impart flavor to the product or react chemically with the food. It should be lightweight, economical and resistant to tearing.

Production Stage: The production stage includes making plans for a production line to manufacture the product. Do not arrange a full-scale production line until after successfully test marketing a new product. Many entrepreneurs will have their products co-packed by an existing plant for test marketing. The production line should be set up according to a blueprint of its layout. Keep in mind drainage, ventilation, waste disposal, lighting, equipment size and flow, energy conservation, safety, sanitation, ease of cleaning, storage area, and compliance with government regulations.

Processing controls must be established to ensure consistent quality during production as set forth by product standards (specifications). Likewise, quality control procedures must be developed to determine if the standards are being met during production and to know when to take corrective action to prevent economic losses due to deviations and to ensure product safety.

Test Marketing Stage: The test marketing stage for processors involves introducing their new product into a limited area, such as a large metropolitan city. It is important to select a site with a population made up of many ethnic groups and income levels. If the product fails, another product can be tried. If the product succeeds, it is distributed in stages to progressively larger areas (statewide, regional, or in the case International demand, International only).

Commercialization Stage: The commercialization is the final step in determining the success or failure of a new product. Most food companies sell mainly to the institutional trade and if they sell to retail outlets, it is usually to privately owned stores or small chains. Larger chains will not take on a new food product unless the product is heavily advertised by the company. The buyer for a large chain must be convinced that the product is good and that advertising exists.


The success of any new specialty product depends on the quality of its flavor, color and texture, its stability under various storage conditions, and its safety. Often, additives may be needed to maintain or enhance product quality throughout and after processing. Additives should not be used to disguise faulty or inferior manufacturing processes or to conceal damage or spoilage. Only the minimum amount of an additive necessary to achieve desired results should be used.

Government regulatory agencies such as the FDA and Department of Agriculture closely monitor the use and levels of additives in food products. The safety of food additives is constantly being reviewed, so food processors must pay close attention to current regulatory statutes governing particular additives. Food Processing

Food preservation through processing is an extremely broad area in food science and methods include refrigeration, freezing, pasteurization, canning, fermentation, concentration, irradiation and dehydration.

Quality Control/Sanitation

Quality control is imperative to the successful development of any food product. Consumers perceive food safety as an integral component of food quality control. The food processor must establish a food safety program including in-process procedures that ensure consistent quality and meet product specifications. It is important to obtain product liability insurance for your protection.


Food packaging protects the food from the surrounding environment, thus preventing contamination, damage and deterioration. Today, convenience is a major factor in packaging. The food package also plays a crucial role in communication. In the marketing of new products, packaging conveys the nature of the food and directions for its use and it attracts and persuades the buyer. Color coordination, artistic design, ingredient labeling, portion size and safety all influence a consumer's decision to buy.


Food labeling was originally designed by the government to protect consumers from fraud. Recent surveys indicate that consumers use labels to identify and avoid perceived health hazards rather than to seek and obtain benefits (does the product contain preservatives, fats, cholesterol?). A label consists of the, principal display panel, used to attract consumers, and the information panel, placed immediately to the right of the principal display panel.

Information that is mandatory on food labels includes:

Statement of identity/product name
Net weight (in ounces and grams)
Name/address of manufacturer
Ingredient listing
Manufacturing code
Nutritional labeling (some exemptions apply)

Information that is voluntary but if included must be worded according to regulations includes:

Labeling for special dietary use

Optional information includes:
Universal product code
Open dating
Registered trademarks/symbols.

Coding Products

An integral part of quality control is a system for coding new food products. The product must be identifiable to the manufacturer by the year and day it was packed and by the batch number,

Any method of coding that is recognizable by the processor is acceptable. Alphabetical letters are often used to identify the month a product was packed. Dates are used to indicate the manufacture date. An example of a code is 24J0521, where 21 indicates the 21st day of the year; J is the month (January) 05 is the year packed (2005); 2 is the plant location; and 5 indicates the First hour of the shift. Accurate record keeping of these codes allows a manufacturer to trace the cause of consumer complaints, control distribution and inventory, ensure proper product rotation, and affect a recall if necessary.


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What's your favorite brand?

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