Qureshi University, Advanced courses, via cutting edge technology, News, Breaking News | Latest News And Media | Current News

Apply for Academic Admission | Academic Guide | Administrative law | About the Founder | Aircraft | Ambassadors | Accreditation | A to Z Degree Fields | Biographies | Books | Blog | Catalog | Calendar | Collaboration | Colleges | Complaint | Contact Us | Continents/States | Construction | Contracts | Courses | Counseling Services | Credits and Credit Hours | Data Center | Doctor Consultation | Distance Education | Education materials | Equipment | Emergency | Emergency call centers | Examinations | English Editing Service | Forms | Faculty | Facilities | Governor | Glossary | Grants | Hardware | Hardware Resources | Helicopters | Hostels | Honorary Doctorate degree | Internet Education | Inspections | Investigations | Internet | Intellectual Property | Investment | Instructors | Internship | Job Openings | Journal | Login | Lecture | Languages | License/Permit/Registration | Maps | Medical Emergency | Manufacturing | Materials | Mentor | Meeting Guidelines | Military Equipment Guide | Movies | Money transfer(Pay Now) | Membership | North America | Non-Emergency Services | Observers | Oceans | Pilot (aeronautics) | Planet Earth | Proposals | Publication | Professional Examinations | Paraprofessional | Profile | Progress Report | Recommendations | Referral or Reference | Research Grants | Research | States | State Directories | Students login | Search | Software | Seminar | Study Center/Centre | Sponsorship | Submit an Issue | Surveillance | Team | Tutoring | Thesis | Universities | Universe & Space | Vehicles | Website | Word processor | Work counseling | World economy | Word Count Tool

What should the world look forward to in aircraft manufacturing?
Global Military Aircraft
Aircraft Specifications

How is an aircraft built?
Global Military Aircraft G1
Table of contents
What is in the table of contents of this aircraft?
Aircraft specifications.
Answers to questions relevant to aircraft manufacture.
Aircraft Parts & Components
Aircraft manufacture
Aircraft Electrical Systems
Aviation law
Comparison with other aircraft
Cockpit of aircraft or flight deck.
Contributors for intellectual property, materials, human resources, locations for these aircraft.
Flight Dynamics
Materials required for each aircraft.
Professionals required for each aircraft.
Uses of each of these aircraft.

Aircraft specifications.
Aircraft type/Role: Military aircraft, long haul, heavy, with described armament.
Armament: Air-dropped bombs
Air-launched missiles
Air-launched rockets
Air-launched torpedoes
Multi-role tanker transport
Cargo transportation of heavy and oversized battle tanks, heavy equipment, combat helicopters.
Free Fall Nuclear Bombs
Military officers airdrop operations.
Medical evacuation missions
Ditching in ocean capabilities
Radar with multidimensional detection and interception capabilities
Self-defense interceptor armament, including missiles
Capable of carrying 605 military officers. Air-to-air refueling
The cargo hold had the capacity to fit up to 256,000lbs of freight.
350/605 troops, 10 LAV-type systems, 5 Humvee vehicles, 2 M1 Abrams main battle tanks or a single CH-47 Chinook.
Two HH-60 Pavehawk Helicopters
Here are further guidelines.
Aircraft by Name/Version: Global Military Aircraft G1
Aircraft Engines: 8 Engines 8 Turbofan
Thrust: 50,580 pounds (each engine)
Aircraft Materials, Processes, & Hardware: Aluminum
Acrylic (Aircraft windows)
Aircraft composites around the world.
(Rubber, Nylon Cord, Steel)
Aircraft Tyre Technology
Titanium (Jet engines)
Aspect ratio: 8.47
Active Personnel (2015): Professionals required for each aircraft.
Aircraft flight control system: See the enclosure.
Cargo door width and height in inches: 252.0 x 173.2
Cargo Compartment: Height 13.5 ft / 4.11 m
Width 19.0 ft / 5.79 m
Length (including ramps) 144.6 ft / 44.07 m
Length (excluding ramps) 121.1 ft / 36.91 m
Total volume (including ramps) 34,795 cu ft / 985.3 cu m
Cruise speed: Mach 0.74 (450 knots, 515 mph, 830 km/h)
Crew: Seven (pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers and three loadmasters)
Empty weight: 175,000 kg (385,000 lb) 393,263 lbs (178,756 kg)
Flight deck: See the enclosure.
Flight control surfaces: See the enclosure.
Fuel capacity/Fuel Volume: Fuel capacity: 51,150 US gal (193,600 L)
Flight range: 150 tons of cargo= 3,200 km (1,728 nmi)
Height: 20.78 m (68 ft 2 in)
Length: 247.83 feet (75.54 meters)
Internal Dimensions: Cabin Length 121'
Cabin Width 19'
Leadership: Doctor Asif Qureshi
Loaded weight: 265,000 lb (120,000 kg)
Manufacturer(s): Government of the World
Motto: Above All
Payload: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb)
Max Cruise Altitude: 34,000
The service ceiling (max cruise altitude) of 34,000 feet is extremely low for this type of aircraft.
Maximum Cargo: 270,000 pounds (122,472 kilograms)
Maximum landing weight: 688,000 lb (312,000 kg)
Maximum loadable volume: 38,841 cu.ft.
Maximum speed: Maximum speed: 560 kn (650 mph, 1,047 km/h)
Maximum payload: 275.6 tons
Maximum Range: 10,000 miles (16,093 kilometers)
Max. takeoff weight: 1,322,774 pounds (600,000 kilograms)
Number of Seats : 73/605 passenger seats in rear upper deck; 8 passenger seats in forward upper deck
Overall Width/Span: 185.10 feet (56.42 meters)
Range: Max: 6,320 nm/7,273 miles (11,711 km); w/120,000 lbs cargo: 4,350 nm/5,006 miles (8,056 km); unlimited with in-flight refueling
Rate of Climb: With the ability to climb 1,800 feet per minute, it can achieve max cruise altitude in as little as 19 minutes once airborne.
Sensors: An automatic trouble-shooting system constantly monitors more than 800 test points in the various subsystems of the ______. The Malfunction Detection Analysis and Recording System uses a digital computer to identify malfunctions in replaceable units. Failure and trend information is recorded on magnetic tape for analysis by maintenance people.
Speed: 570 (mph)
Thrust: 50,580 pounds (each engine)
Thrust/weight: 0.23
Wing area: 628 m² (6,760 sq ft)
Wingspan: 73.3 m (240 ft 5 in)

Air-dropped bombs
Air-launched missiles
Air-launched rockets
Air-launched torpedoes
Multi-role tanker transport
Cargo transportation of heavy and oversized battle tanks, heavy equipment, combat helicopters.
Free Fall Nuclear Bombs
Military officers airdrop operations.
Medical evacuation missions
Ditching in ocean capabilities
Radar with multidimensional detection and interception capabilities
Self-defense interceptor armament, including missiles
Capable of carrying 605 military officers.
Air-to-air refueling
The cargo hold had the capacity to fit up to 256,000lbs of freight.
350/605 troops, 10 LAV-type systems, 5 Humvee vehicles, 2 M1 Abrams main battle tanks or a single CH-47 Chinook.
Two HH-60 Pavehawk Helicopters

While missiles are the primary armament since the early 1960s, various Wars showed that guns still had a role to play and most fighters built since then are fitted with cannon (typically between 20 and 30 mm in caliber) as an adjunct to missiles.

The cargo compartment of the G1 will hold 100 model 113 (Beetle) Volkswagens, 106 Vegas, 90 Ramblers, 58 Cadillacs, or 6 standard Greyhound buses.

More than 100 miles of wiring are required to functionally operate all G1 aircraft systems.
Each G1 engine gulps approximately 42 tons of air per minute.

The cargo compartment of the G1 is large enough to hold an eight-lane bowling alley.

The total engine power of a G1 equals that produced by 800 average cars.

Each G1 tire wears down approximately 0.002 inches per landing.

Each G1 wheel brake wears down approximately 0.0005 inches per landing.

The G1 contains over five miles of control cables.

The G1 can carry 25,844,746 ping pong balls.

The G1 can carry 328,301,674 aspirin tablets.

The G1 can carry 3,222,857 tortillas.

Each wing of the G1 weighs over 40,000, which is equivalent to the weight of a C-130, minus engines.

Each G1 contains over four miles of tubing.

The G1 can haul 3,934 bushels of wheat.

The G1 cargo area is able to carry more automobiles than 13 transport trucks, or two "car-carrying" freight cars.

Each G1 engine nacelle is 1 ½ times the length of a Cadillac, large enough to garage a Mustang.

Fuel capacity of the G1, 49,000 gallons, would empty 6 ½ rail tank cars.

Also, its fuel capacity is equal to the volume of an average five-room house.

The G1 can carry 76,216 fifths of California juice, or 277,263 cans (12 oz.) of your favorite beverage.

Tire on the G1, (24 on the MLG, 4 on the NLG), weigh 4214 pounds. They hold 181 pounds of air when inflated to the prescribed pressure.

A full G1 load of first class mail, (at one ounce per letter/37 cents per letter) would require $1,391,200 in postage.

The environmental control systems of the G1 has a total cooling capacity of 24 tons; enough to air condition eight average sized homes.

Fuel weight of the G1 is about equal to the maximum gross weight of the C-141A model.

If all the exposed surfaces of the G1, which is computed to be 33,526.6 square feet, were covered in ice of uniform 1/16" thickness, it would weigh 9,778.6 pounds.

Theoretically, the G1 can hold 2,419,558 golf balls, provided they are not in containers or otherwise restrained.

There are approximately 1,658,800 fasteners in the G1 aircraft. They are located as follows: wings-411,900; fuselage-1,182,000; empennage-64,900.

An automatic trouble-shooting system that records and analyzes information and detects malfunctions in more than 800 test points.

Able to take off fully loaded within 8,300 feet (2,530 meters) and land within 4,900 feet (1,493 meters).

What is Aerodynamics?
Aerodynamics is the way air moves around things. The rules of aerodynamics explain how an airplane is able to fly. Anything that moves through air reacts to aerodynamics.

What Are the Four Forces of Flight?
The four forces of flight are lift, weight, thrust and drag. These forces make an object move up and down, and faster or slower. How much of each force there is changes how the object moves through the air.

What is Weight?
Everything on Earth has weight. This force comes from gravity pulling down on objects. To fly, an aircraft needs something to push it in the opposite direction from gravity. The weight of an object controls how strong the push has to be. A kite needs a lot less upward push than a jumbo jet does.

What is Lift?
Lift is the push that lets something move up. It is the force that is the opposite of weight. Everything that flies must have lift. For an aircraft to move upward, it must have more lift than weight. A hot air balloon has lift because the hot air inside is lighter than the air around it. Hot air rises and carries the balloon with it. A helicopter's lift comes from the rotor blades at the top of the helicopter. Their motion through the air moves the helicopter upward. Lift for an airplane comes from its wings.

How Do an Airplane's Wings Provide Lift?
The shape of an airplane's wings is what makes it able to fly. Airplanes' wings are curved on top and flatter on the bottom. That shape makes air flow over the top faster than under the bottom. So, less air pressure is on top of the wing. This condition makes the wing, and the airplane it's attached to, move up. Using curves to change air pressure is a trick used on many aircraft. Helicopter rotor blades use this trick. Lift for kites also comes from a curved shape. Even sailboats use this concept. A boat's sail is like a wing. That's what makes the sailboat move.

What is Drag?
Drag is a force that tries to slow something down. It makes it hard for an object to move. It is harder to walk or run through water than through air. That is because water causes more drag than air. The shape of an object also changes the amount of drag. Most round surfaces have less drag than flat ones. Narrow surfaces usually have less drag than wide ones. The more air that hits a surface, the more drag it makes.

What is Thrust?
Thrust is the force that is the opposite of drag. Thrust is the push that moves something forward. For an aircraft to keep moving forward, it must have more thrust than drag. A small airplane might get its thrust from a propeller. A larger airplane might get its thrust from jet engines. A glider does not have thrust. It can only fly until the drag causes it to slow down and land.

What is Supersonic Flight?
Supersonic flight is one of the four speeds of flight. They are called the regimes of flight. The regimes of flight are subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic. Vehicles that fly at supersonic speeds are flying faster than the speed of sound. Why Does the Air Speed Up?
When moving air encounters an obstacle—a person, a tree, a wing—its path narrows as it flows around the object. Even so, the amount of air moving past any point at any given moment within the airflow is the same. For this to happen, the air must either compress or speed up where its flow narrows. While air can be compressed more easily than water, freely flowing air acts much like water—at least at relatively low speeds. So when you "squeeze" a stream of air, two things happen. The air speeds up, and as it speeds up, its pressure—the force of the air pressing against the side of the object—goes down. When the air slows back down, its pressure goes back up.

Why does the air speed up? Because of conservation of mass, which states that mass is neither created nor destroyed, no matter what physical changes may take place. This means that if the area in which the air is moving narrows or widens, then the air has to speed up or slow down to maintain a constant amount of air moving through the area.

Why Does the Air Pressure Go Down?
For a stream of air to speed up, some of the energy from the random motion of the air molecules must be converted into the energy of forward stream flow. The random motion of air molecules is what causes air pressure; so transferring energy from the random motion to the stream flow results in lower air pressure.

What is the difference between static pressure, total (ram) pressure, and dynamic pressure?
Pressure is the continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something (a fluid such as air) in contact with it. Static pressure is the pressure you have if the fluid isn't moving or if you are moving with the fluid. Air would press against you equally in all directions. It decreases with an increase in speed because of conservation law. Total (or ram) pressure is the pressure a fluid exerts as it is brought to a stop. Total pressure is what acts on you as you face into the wind and the air collides with your body. Dynamic pressure is the pressure of a fluid that results from its motion. It is the difference between the total pressure and static pressure. Pilots rely on instruments that measure dynamic pressure to determine their airspeed.

What is speed of sound?
The speed of sound can change depending on the temperature of the air. At 15 ºC (59 ºF) sound travels at about 1,220 kilometers per hour (760 miles per hour). While at -56 ºC (-67 ºF) the speed of sound is much slower at about 1,056 km/h (660 mph).

Does the air flowing over the airfoil have more or less pressure? And why?
The air flowing above has less pressure, and thanks to this phenomenon, we have lift. The curved top of the airfoil will actually force the air to move between a smaller area. When a fluid moves through a smaller area, it speeds up, and fast air has low pressure. This is Bernoulli's principle. The air above the wing will have less pressure.

The air underneath the wing has more space, so it moves more slowly and has higher pressure. The high pressure air pushes up the wing, and produces lift!

Why does lift increase as speed increases?
Fast air has low pressure. So when plane's speed increases, the speed of the air over the wing does too. This means that the pressure above the wing drops. Since the air below the wing is moving more slowly, the high pressure there will push up on the wing, and lift it into the air.

Can a hypersonic plane reach Mach 15?
Mach 15 is about 5104.35 meters per second.

So far the only plane that could go that fast would be the (unmanned) _______, which has been able to go over Mach 10. The _______ was suppoed to be able to reach Mach 15, but was never realized. It had a rocket engine.

Astronauts reach well over Mach 15 during re-entry: they can reach speeds as high as Mach 25.

How does tilting a flap change the drag on a wing?

Flaps exist on the trailing edge of an airplane wing, and are used to increase the airplane's lift. When extended, they change the shape of the wing, creating more area for lift to be produced. However, this has the downside of also creating more surface area for drag to occur. Friction drag will rub against the flap and slow the plane down, but only slightly: since there is a lot more lift being produced than drag, the plane will be fine.

How does friction affect an airplane?

An airplane is subject to a specific kind of friction, which we call friction drag. Friction drag is the resistance of the air along the surface of the plane. The air molecules rub along the plane and actually slow it down. To minimize the effects of drag, the airplane needs to be designed in such a way as to limit the surface and create a smooth trailing edge. We call these shapes streamlined or aerodynamic.

Why didn't our spaceships slow down to land like the ones in movie?

In movies, spaceships have found ways to counter the Earth's gravitational pull. Some imagine anti-grav devices, or others super powered thrusters that allow the ships to hover. Real spacecraft haven't gotten that far yet, so landing is basically just dropping it all the way from outer space.

In reality, spaceships do slow down to land: if they didn't, they would be in huge craters now. When they fall from space, they reach astounding speeds, over 28,000 kmh (17,500 mph). They go so fast that the friction from the atmosphere burns away at their hull, so they need heat shields or special tiles. Some use very strong parachutes to help them reach speeds safe enough to land.

What are other names for autopilot of an aircraft?
Automatic flight control system

Do all aircraft have an autopilot?

What types of aircraft have autopilot?
Modern recently built aircraft, particularly large military and large aircraft utilized for intercontinental and regional flights have an autopilot.

Questions a pilot must ask.

What kind of flight control system does the aircraft have?
What are the details of the aircraft’s autopilot (automatic flight control system)?
Does that aircraft have an autopilot (automatic flight control system)?

Questions an aerospace engineer must know the answer to.

What should an aerospace engineer know about an aircraft’s autopilot?
What is the autopilot of an aircraft?
What are the types of autopilot of an aircraft?
What are the parts of an autopilot of an aircraft?
What are the reasons for failure of an autopilot of an aircraft?
What type of autopilot should there be for global military aircraft G1?
How many aircraft around the world have an autopilot (automatic flight control system)?
How does an autopilot (automatic flight control system) of an aircraft function?

What are the components of normal aircraft flight?
1.Taxiing of aircraft.
2.Takeoff of aircraft.
3.Climb of aircraft.
4.Cruise of aircraft.
5.Descent of aircraft.
6.Approach of aircraft.
7.Landing of aircraft.

Water landing
8.Ditching (water landing) of aircraft.

What are the differences among pitch, roll, and yaw?
Pitch of an aircraft is rotation around the side-to-side axis.
Roll of an aircraft is rotation around the front-to-back axis.
Yaw of an aircraft is Rotation around the vertical axis.

Use elevators to control Pitch.
Use ailerons to control Roll.
Use rudder to control Yaw.

Use elevator, ailerons, and rudder through autopilot to control all of them.

What is the autopilot of an aircraft?
An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. An autopilot can refer specifically to aircraft, self-steering gear for boats, or auto guidance of space craft and missiles.

In the early days of aviation, aircraft required the continuous attention of a pilot in order to fly safely. As aircraft range increased allowing flights of many hours, the constant attention led to serious fatigue. An autopilot is designed to perform some of the tasks of the pilot.

Not all of the passenger aircraft flying today have an autopilot system.

Autopilots in modern complex aircraft are three-axis and generally divide a flight into taxi, takeoff, ascent, cruise (level flight), descent, approach, and landing phases. Autopilots exist that automate all of these flight phases except the taxiing. An autopilot-controlled landing on a runway and controlling the aircraft on rollout (i.e. keeping it on the centre of the runway) is known as a CAT IIIb landing or Autoland, available on many major airports' runways today, especially at airports subject to adverse weather phenomena such as fog. Landing, rollout, and taxi control to the aircraft parking position is known as CAT IIIc. This is not used to date, but may be used in the future. An autopilot is often an integral component of a Flight Management System.

Modern autopilots use computer software to control the aircraft. The software reads the aircraft's current position, and then controls a Flight Control System to guide the aircraft. In such a system, besides classic flight controls, many autopilots incorporate thrust control capabilities that can control throttles to optimize the airspeed, and move fuel to different tanks to balance the aircraft in an optimal attitude in the air. Although autopilots handle new or dangerous situations inflexibly, they generally fly an aircraft with a lower fuel-consumption than a human pilot.

The hardware of an autopilot varies from implementation to implementation, but is generally designed with redundancy and reliability as foremost considerations. For example, the Rockwell Collins AFDS-770 Autopilot Flight Director System[6] used on the Boeing 777, uses triplicated FCP-2002 microprocessors which have been formally verified and are fabricated in a radiation resistant process.

Software and hardware in an autopilot is tightly controlled, and extensive test procedures are put in place.

Some autopilots also use design diversity. In this safety feature, critical software processes will not only run on separate computers and possibly even using different architectures, but each computer will run software created by different engineering teams, often being programmed in different programming languages. It is generally considered unlikely that different engineering teams will make the same mistakes. As the software becomes more expensive and complex, design diversity is becoming less common because fewer engineering companies can afford it. The flight control computers on the Space Shuttle used this design: there were five computers, four of which redundantly ran identical software, and a fifth backup running software that was developed independently. The software on the fifth system provided only the basic functions needed to fly the Shuttle, further reducing any possible commonality with the software running on the four primary systems.

Comparison with other aircraft
What is the name of the aircraft?
Global Military Aircraft G1

What other aircraft should you compare this aircraft with?
Airbus A400M Atlas
Alenia C-27J Spartan
Antonov An-225 Mriya
Antonov An-124
Antonov An-22
Antonov An-12
Antonov An-70
Boeing C-17 Globemaster III
Boeing B-29 Superfortress
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
Boeing 747
Kawasaki C-1
Lockheed C-5 Galaxy
Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules
Ilyushin Il-76
Tupolev Tu-160
Xian Y-20

What combination features does this aircraft have?
This aircraft is combination of An 124 and B52 Stratofortess

How are aircraft specifications usually elaborated?
Alphabetical specifications
General characteristics
Structural dimensions and specifications
Performance specifications

Structure of this aircraft is that of An 124
Performance is that of B52, An124 combination.
A few windows are also available.

Performance of Aircaft

What should be included in performance of this aircraft?
Cruise speed: 442 kn (525 mph, 844 km/h)
Combat radius: 4,480 mi (3,890 nmi, 7,210 km)
Fuel capacity: 51,150 US gal (193,600 L)
Ferry range: 10,145 mi (8,764 nmi, 16,232 km)
Lift-to-drag ratio: 21.5 (estimated)
Maximum speed: 560 kn (650 mph, 1,047 km/h)
Rate of climb: 6,270 ft/min (31.85 m/s)
Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
Thrust/weight: 0.31
Wing loading: 120 lb/ft² (586 kg/m²)
Runway type required: Airlifts onto unprepared runways

Aircraft specification

How should you elaborate on aircraft specifications?
Aircraft type
Armament of aircraft
Aspect ratio
Auxiliary Power Unit
Aircraft emergency power unit (EPU)
Aircraft Engines
Aircraft Materials, Processes, & Hardware
Cargo door width and height in inches
Cargo hold length, width, and height in inches
Cargo volume
Cruise speed
Door dimensions
Empty weight
Flight deck or full Authority Digital Engine Control(FADEC)
Maximum loadable volume
Maximum payload
Maximum takeoff weight
Maximum speed
Materials for specific aircraft parts
Range: with maximum fuel, with maximum payload
Service ceiling
Takeoff run with maximum payload
Wing load
Wing area

Aircraft type
Is it military or nonmilitary aircraft?
If it is nonmilitary, what is the purpose of the aircraft?
Is it short haul, medium, or long haul aircraft?
Is it light, medium, or heavy aircraft?
If it is military aircraft, what armaments does the aircraft have?

One statement must look like this relevant to aircraft type.

Military aircraft, long haul, heavy, with described armament.


Nonmilitary aircraft, long haul, heavy passenger aircraft
Nonmilitary aircraft, long haul, heavy cargo aircraft

How is duration of flight categorized?
Short-haul flight: <3 hours
Medium-haul flight: 3 to 6 hours
Long-haul flight: >6 hours

What are the categories of aircrafts as per certified maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)?
VL: Very light aircraft MTOW less than 10,000 pounds (4,540 kg).
L: Light aircraft – 7,000 kg
M: Medium aircraft – 7,000–136,000 kg
H: Heavy aircraft – >136,000 kg
Each aircraft type can be very light, light, medium, or heavy.

Armament of aircraft
What is the difference between military aircraft and nonmilitary aircraft?
Military aircraft have inbuilt weapons like bombs, guns, and missiles.
Military aircraft can have capabilities of loading tanks, armored vehicles, military cargo.

How does military cargo aircraft differ from nonmilitary cargo aircraft?
These examples will make you understand.
Antonov An-124 Ruslan An-22 Antonov An-12 A400M Atlas Alenia C-27J Spartan C-5 Galaxy C-17 Globemaster III C-130J Super Hercules Il-76 Kawasaki C-1.
These are all military cargo aircraft.
Nonmilitary cargo aircraft do not have capabilities that military cargo aircraft have.

What best describes armament of aircraft?

Does aircraft have any armament?

What best describes military capabilities of aircraft, including armament?
Air-to-air refueling
Cargo transportation of heavy and oversized battle tanks, heavy equipment, combat helicopters.
Ditching in ocean capabilities
Multi-role tanker transport
Military officers air drop operation capabilities
Medical evacuation missions
Radar with multidimensional detection and interception capabilities
Self-defense interceptor armament, including missiles

Aviation law
What is aviation law?
Aviation law is the branch of law that concerns flight.
Some of its area of concern overlaps that of admiralty law.
Aviation law is considered a matter of international law.

Here are some universal facts about aircraft.
An aircraft does not belong to one person.
Aircraft/aircrafts are state aircrafts.
Aircrafts have to be utilized for the best interest of people of the state.
Any harms due to aircraft have to be punished.
Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Engines
What is a heat engine?
What is a jet engine?
How does a jet engine work?
How Does A Turbofan Engine Work?
What are the types of aircraft engines?
How do you manufacture a large aircraft engine?
What is a heat engine?
An engine is a machine that turns the energy locked in fuel into force and motion.

There are two main types of heat engines: external combustion and internal combustion:

External combustion engines

Beam engines
Steam engines
Stirling engines

Internal combustion engines

Gasoline (petrol) engines
Diesel engines
Rotary engines

What is a jet engine?
A jet engine is a machine for turning fuel into thrust (forward motion).

All jet engines work on the same principle, production of thrust to propel the aircraft forward. All jet engines have an air intake through which air enters. This air is burnt in the combustion chamber with fuel and the hot exhaust gas comes out of a nozzle, forming jet thrust. The actual working of these engines involves additional components and stages which will be explained below.

How does a jet engine work?
Jet engines create forward thrust by taking in a large amount of air and discharging it as a high-speed jet of gas. The way they’re designed allows aircraft to fly faster and further compared to propeller-driven aircraft. Types of jet engines

Turboshaft Engine
Military aircraft jet-engines in more detail

There are many different types of jet engines, all of which get propulsion from a high speed exhaust jet. Some of the most important types are listed below.

Type Description Advantages Disadvantages
Turbojet Generic term for simple turbine engine Simplicity of design Basic design, misses many improvements in efficiency and power
Turbofan First stage compressor greatly enlarged to provide bypass airflow around engine core Quieter due to greater mass flow and lower total exhaust speed, more efficient for a useful range of subsonic airspeeds for same reason, cooler exhaust temperature Greater complexity (additional ducting, usually multiple shafts), large diameter engine, need to contain heavy blades. More subject to FOD and ice damage. Top speed is limited due to the potential for shockwaves to damage engine
Ramjet Intake air is compressed entirely by speed of oncoming air and duct shape (divergent) Very few moving parts, Mach 0.8 to Mach 5+, efficient at high speed (> Mach 2.0 or so), lightest of all airbreathing jets (thrust/weight ratio up to 30 at optimum speed) Must have a high initial speed to function, inefficient at slow speeds due to poor compression ratio, difficult to arrange shaft power for accessories, usually limited to a small range of speeds, intake flow must be slowed to subsonic speeds, noisy, fairly difficult to test, finicky to kept lit.
Scramjet Similar to a ramjet without a diffuser; airflow through the entire engine remains supersonic Few mechanical parts, can operate at very high Mach numbers (Mach 8 to 15) with good efficiencies.
Still in development stages, must have a very high initial speed to function (Mach >6), cooling difficulties, very poor thrust/weight ratio (~2), extreme aerodynamic complexity, airframe difficulties, testing difficulties/expense
Pulsejet Air is compressed and combusted intermittently instead of continuously. Some designs use valves. Very simple design, commonly used on model aircraft Noisy, inefficient (low compression ratio), works poorly on a large scale, valves on valved designs wear out quickly
Pulse detonation engine Similar to a pulsejet, but combustion occurs as a detonation instead of a deflagration, may or may not need valves Maximum theoretical engine efficiency Extremely noisy, parts subject to extreme mechanical fatigue, hard to start detonation, not practical for current use
Rocket Carries all propellants onboard, emits jet for propulsion Very few moving parts, Mach 0 to Mach 25+, efficient at very high speed (> Mach 10.0 or so), thrust/weight ratio over 100, no complex air inlet, high compression ratio, very high speed (hypersonic) exhaust, good cost/thrust ratio, fairly easy to test, works in a vacuum-indeed works best exoatmospheric which is kinder on vehicle structure at high speed. Needs lots of propellant- very low specific impulse typically 100-450 seconds. Extreme thermal stresses of combustion chamber can make reuse harder. Typically requires carrying oxidiser onboard which increases risks. Extraordinarily noisy.

v Turbofan

Turbofan engines are much quieter than turbojets and are typically used in large airliners. A turbofan engine has a large fan that sucks in air at the front. Some of the air is blown into the compressor; the rest is blown around the outside of the combustion chamber and straight out of the back. This "bypass" arrangement cools the engine and makes it much quieter. It also produces much more thrust at both takeoff and landing.

USES: Almost all modern fighter aircraft use high power turbofans with afterburners. Cruise missiles and UAVs also use turbofans. Most of the airliners have switched over to turbofan powered aircraft.

How Does A Turbofan Engine Work?

Jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work by sucking air into the front of the engine using a fan. From there, the engine compresses the air, mixes fuel with it, ignites the fuel/air mixture, and shoots it out the back of the engine, creating thrust.

That's a pretty basic explanation of how it works, so let's take a look at each section of a jet engine to see what's really going on.

Parts Of A Jet Engine

There are 4 main types of turbine engines, but for this example, we'll use the turbofan, which is the the most common type of turbine engine found on airline jets today.

The Fan

The first part of the turbofan is the fan. It's also the part that you can see when you're looking at the front of an airliner.

The fan, which almost always is made of titanium blades, sucks in tremendous quantities of air into the engine.

The air moves through two parts of the engine. Some of the air is directed into the engine's core, where the combustion will occur. The rest of the air, called 'bypass air', is moved around the outside of the engine core through a duct. This bypass air creates additional thrust, cools the engine, and makes the engine quieter by blanketing the exhaust air that's exiting the engine. And in today's modern turbofans, bypass air produces the majority of an engine's thrust.

The Compressor

The compressor is located in the first part of the engine core. And it, as you probably have guessed, compresses the air.

The compressor, which is called an 'axial flow compressor', uses a series of airfoil shaped spinning blades to speed up and compress the air. It's called axial flow, because the air passes through the engine in a direction parallel to the shaft of the engine (as opposed to centrifugal flow).

As the air moves through the compressor, each set of blades is slightly smaller, adding more energy and compression to the air.

In between each set of compressor blades are non-moving airfoil shaped blades called 'stators'. These stators (which are also called vanes), increase the pressure of the air by converting the rotational energy into static pressure. The stators also prepare the air for entering the next set of rotating blades - in other words, they 'straighten' the flow of air.

When combined, a pair of rotating and stationary blades is called a stage.

The Combustor

The combustor is where the fire happens. As air exits the compressor and enters the combustor, it is mixed with fuel, and ignited.

It sounds simple, but it's actually a very complex process. That's because the combustor needs to maintain a stable combustion of fuel/air mixture, while the air is moving through the combustor at an extremely fast rate.

The case contains all the parts of the combustor, and inside it, the diffuser is the first part that does work.

The diffuser slows down the air from the compressor, making it easier to ignite. The dome and swirler add turbulence to the air so it can more easily mix with fuel. And the fuel injector, as you probably guessed, sprays fuel into the air, creating a fuel/air mixture that can be ignited.

From there, the liner is where the actual combustion happens. The liner has several inlets, allowing air to enter at multiple points in the combustion zone.

The last main part is the igniter, which is very similar to the spark plugs in your car or piston-engine airplane. Once the igniter lights the fire, it is self-sustaining, and the igniter is turned off (although it's often used as a back-up in bad weather and icing conditions).

The Turbine

Once the air makes its way through the combustor, it flows through the turbine. The turbine is a series of airfoil shaped blades that are very similar to the blades in the compressor. As the hot, high-speed air flows over the turbine blades, they extract energy from the air, spinning the turbine around in a circle, and turning the engine shaft that it's connected to.

This is the same shaft that the fan and compressor are connected to, so by spinning the turbine, the fan and compressor on the front of the engine continue sucking in more air that will soon be mixed with fuel and burned.

The Nozzle

The last step of the process happens in the nozzle. The nozzle is essentially the exhaust duct of the engine, and it's where the high speed air shoots out the back.

This is also the part where Sir Isaac Newton's third law comes into play: for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Put simply, by forcing air out the back of the engine at high speed, the airplane is pushed forward.

In some engines, there's a mixer in the exhaust nozzle as well. This simply mixes some of the bypass air flowing around the engine with the hot, combusted air, making the engine quieter.

Putting It All Together

Jet engines produce incredible amounts of thrust by drawing in air, compressing it, igniting it, and exhausting it out the back. And they do it all in a very fuel efficient manor.

So the next time you climb aboard an airliner, whether you're the pilot up front or riding in the back, take a second to thank the engineers who made it possible for your 700,000 pounds of aluminum to blast across the sky at 80% the speed of sound.

Doctor Asif Qureshi

Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Parts & Components
What is a subassembly?
A structural assembly, as of electronic or machine parts, forming part of a larger assembly.

What are the six major subassemblies that make up an aircraft?
  1. Cockpit/Avionics

  2. Components/Systems

  3. Engines

  4. Fuselage

  5. Landing Gear

  6. Wings
What are the seven major subassemblies that make up a helicopter?
Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Parts & Function
Engine The Engine
Birds flap their wings to create lift, but since airplane wings are fixed in place, the lift comes from the engine, usually found in the front of the plane or on the wings. Single engine craft like the Cessna 172 Skyhawk have one engine in front of the cockpit. The pilot can usually see the tip of the propeller blade, the spinning propeller that makes the plane move forward, through the windshield. At a certain point the plane is moving fast enough that the wings attain lift, and the plane leaves the ground. Twin engine planes have one engine on each wing, while passenger jets, depending on their size, could have one or two engines on each wing. In the case of the Lockheed L-1011, now retired, the plane had one engine on the tail and one on each wing. Jet engines, which have no propellers, use the oxygen in the air combined with a fuel source to create lift. The oxygen is sucked into the front of the engine and pushed out the rear, propelling the plane forward.
Here are further guidelines.
Fuselage -- The Cockpit Controls
Information devices
Navigation devices
Communication devices

The fuselage is the long tube-shaped structure that holds the pilot, crew, passengers and cargo. The cockpit, in the front, is where the pilot sits and controls the plane. A mass of dials and switches keeps track of all the plane's systems; among them are altitude, how high you are flying; your compass reading, where exactly you are in the sky; and a gauge that measures fuel consumption. The yoke, sort of an odd-looking steering wheel, along with the rudder pedals on the floor of the plane, are the main controls. The yoke steers the plane up or down and keeps the plane flying level, also known as attitude. On small planes, the yoke is manually controlled by the pilot; it feels like manipulating a car steering wheel, but without the power steering. The rudders help with turning the plane. Larger planes use hydraulics to help the pilot control the craft.
Here are further guidelines.
Fuselage Fuselage -- Cabin

The section in back of the cockpit is the cabin; on small planes, like the Cessna 172 Skyhawk (cessna.com) or the Piper Cub (piper.com), the cabin and cockpit are all in one unit. On larger planes, including commercial jets, these two sections of the plane are separated. Commercial jets usually have cabins with first-class and coach sections; first class has wider seats and more services than coach. Business class, a sort of hybrid between the two classes, is between the two on some flights. In the Boeing 747 (boeing.com), the cabin has two floors; the first class section is upstairs. The cabin also houses the restrooms, galleys, or kitchens, and seating for the flight attendants. Each passenger seat offers emergency oxygen masks and call buttons for the attendants.
Here are further guidelines.

Tail Section Tail Section

The empennage (also called tail) is the rear part of the aircraft. Usually it includes the stabilizers, rudder and elevator as many other components

The tail section of a plane not only provides balance, it helps to steer the plane. Tails have two small horizontal pieces that look like mini-wings and a vertical fin. On the horizontal pieces are the elevators, small flaps controlled by the yoke in the cockpit. If the elevator points up, the nose of the plane goes up; if they point down, the plane also noses downward. An elevator pointing straight back keeps the plane in level flight. The outer edge of the vertical fin holds the rudder, and if the pilot pushes the left rudder pedal, the rudder moves left, while the plane turns right. Pressing the right rudder pedal has the opposite effect.
Here are further guidelines.
Wings Control surfaces

Vertical stabilizer and rudder
Horizontal stabilizer and elevator
Trim tab

Lift control devices


Wings are the key to flight. Take away the engine, and you have a glider, which, once towed into the sky by another plane, catches the air currents and stays aloft quite nicely. Wings are designed with a thicker rounded edge along the front that tapers to a point across the back. Looking at the wing from the side, the bottom is fairly flat, while the top is curved. The air flowing over the top of the wing creates an area of low pressure, which pulls the plane into the air, creating lift. Flaps, found on the back of the wings, are controlled by the pilot to either increase the lift or to slow the plane down. Early airplane wings were made of light wood and fabric, while today’s plane wings are usually made of metal. Sometimes, wings also hold the plane’s fuel tanks.
Here are further guidelines.
Undercarriage -- Landing Gear Landing gear
Nose gear
Main gear

A plane's landing gear must be strong enough to absorb the stresses of take-offs and landings. Small planes usually have one of two types of landing gear. Conventional landing gear, in which two wheels are toward the front of the aircraft and a tiny third wheel is under the base of the tail, is the most basic. A tricycle landing gear system, which has two main wheels and another wheel under the nose of the plane, makes the plane easier to control. Large aircraft use tandem landing gear, pairs of landing wheels that sit under the plane’s fuselage. As an example, a Boeing 747 has 16 main landing wheels and two additional nose wheels. In the larger planes, as well as on some small craft, the landing gear is retracted into the fuselage during flight, which makes the plane more aerodynamic.
Here are further guidelines.
Systems Hydraulic
Pneumatic (Bleed)
Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Materials, Processes, & Hardware
Aircraft manufacturing materials around the world.
What are examples of aircraft manufacturing materials around the world?
Acrylic (Aircraft windows)
Aircraft composites around the world.
(Rubber, Nylon Cord, Steel)
Aircraft Tyre Technology
Titanium (Jet engines)
Here are further guidelines.
Aspect ratio
What is aspect ratio of an aircraft?
In aerodynamics, the aspect ratio of a wing is the ratio of its length to its breadth (chord). A high aspect ratio indicates long, narrow wings, whereas a low aspect ratio indicates short, stubby wings

What should you focus on range of aspect ratio?
Focus on aspect ratio range of 1.0–12.

How do you calculate aspect ratio?
Wingspan: 30 feet
Mean cord: 4.8 feet
Aspect ratio (AR) 6.25 or 30/4.8
You can also calculate takeoff distance

For most wings the length of the chord is not a constant but varies along the wing, so the aspect ratio AR is defined as the square of the wingspan b divided by the area S of the wing planform, which is equal to the length-to-breadth ratio for a constant chord wing. In symbols,
AR =b2/s

As the aspect ratio increases, does takeoff distance increase or decrease?
Does shorter takeoff time indicates more or less lift?
What are the advantages of a higher aspect ratio?
How can we increase the aspect ratio without changing the wing span?
What are advantages and disadvantages of increasing aspect ratio of aircraft? Here are further guidelines.

Cockpit of aircraft or flight deck.
What are other names for the cockpit of aircraft?
What is the cockpit of an Aircraft?
How does an aircraft flight deck look?
Why is there a need to give reference of other aircraft flight decks?
What are other names for the cockpit of aircraft?
Flight deck

What is the cockpit of an Aircraft?
An aircraft cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern aircraft cockpits are enclosed. From now onwards, cockpit will be referred as flight deck.

How does an aircraft flight deck look?
This depends on the type of aircraft.
All flight decks do not look the same.
Here are some examples of flight decks.

Why is there a need to give reference of other aircraft flight decks?
If you compare various flight decks, then you will come up with a better aircraft flight deck.
In the pilot‘s seat in an aircraft flight deck, you should feel at home.
It’s as if you are in a flight deck pilot seat or a home bed.
Computer with Internet should be connected in flight deck.
This is in addition to other equipment in an aircraft flight deck.

Aircraft flight control system
Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.

Flight Dynamics
Roll, Pitch, and Yaw

Airplanes are controlled along three axes: the longitudinal axis (front to back), the lateral axis (wingtip to wingtip), and the vertical axis (top to bottom).

What are Roll, Pitch, and Yaw?
Imagine three lines running through an airplane and intersecting at right angles at the airplane’s center of gravity.
Rotation around the front-to-back axis is called roll.
Rotation around the side-to-side axis is called pitch.
Rotation around the vertical axis is called yaw.

The Ailerons Control Roll
The Elevator Controls Pitch
The Rudder Controls Yaw

Vehicles that are free to operate in three dimensions, such as aircraft and submarines, can change their attitude and rotation about the three orthogonal axes centered on the vehicle’s center of gravity — the longitudinal, vertical, and horizontal axes. Motion about the longitudinal axis is termed roll and in aircraft determines how much the wings are banked. Motion about the perpendicular axes is called yaw and for aircraft it determines which way the nose is pointed. (Note: Aircraft do not necessarily fly in the same direction as the nose is pointed if there are significant winds.) Motion about the lateral axis is called pitch and it’s a measure of how far an airplane’s nose is tilted up or down.

Cars also experience pitch, roll, and yaw, but the amounts are relatively small and are usually the result of the suspension reacting to turns, accelerations, and road conditions.

How is Controlling an Airplane Different than Controlling a Car or Boat?
Stability and control are much more complex for an airplane, which can move freely in three dimensions, than for cars or boats, which only move in two. A change in any one of the three types of motion affects the other two.

What keeps an airplane from rolling over?
To help make turning easier, an airplane is usually less stable along its roll axis than along its pitch and yaw axes. Several factors help the pilot keep the wings level: the inclined mounting of the wings, the position of the wings above or below the fuselage, the swept-back shape of the wings, and the vertical stabilizer. ...

What are flaps used for?
Flaps are located on the trailing edge of each wing, usually between the fuselage and the ailerons, and extend downward (and often outward) from the wing when put into use. The purpose of the flaps is to generate more lift at slower airspeed, which enables the airplane to fly at a greatly reduced speed with a lower risk of stalling. This is especially useful during takeoff and landing. When extended further, flaps also generate more drag which slows the airplane down much faster than just reducing throttle.

Controlling Roll
Controlling Pitch
Controlling Yaw

Ailerons control roll.

On the outer rear edge of each wing, the two ailerons move in opposite directions, up and down, decreasing lift on one wing while increasing it on the other. This causes the airplane to roll to the left or right. To turn the airplane, the pilot uses the ailerons to tilt the wings in the desired direction.

The elevator controls pitch.

On the horizontal tail surface, the elevator tilts up or down, decreasing or increasing lift on the tail. This tilts the nose of the airplane up and down.

The rudder controls yaw.

On the vertical tail fin, the rudder swivels from side to side, pushing the tail in a left or right direction. A pilot usually uses the rudder along with the ailerons to turn the airplane.

Which of the following control surfaces does a pilot use to change altitude (move the nose up or down)?
A) Ailerons
B) Elevator
C) Rudder
D) None of the Above


Elevator: The elevator is the small moving section on the trailing edge of the horizontal tail surface that controls pitch. Moving the elevator up decreases the amount of lift generated by the horizontal tail surface and pitches the nose up, causing the airplane to climb. Moving the elevator down increases the amount of lift generated by the horizontal tail surface and pitches the nose down, causing the airplane to dive.

Control Surfaces
Here are further guidelines.

Range: with maximum fuel, with maximum payload
How is duration of flight categorized?
Short-haul flight: <3 hours
Medium-haul flight: 3 to 6 hours
Long-haul flight: >6 hours

Xian Y-20

An advanced 4-engine large transport has been under development since early 2000s at 603 Institute, XAC, CAC and SAC which is smaller than American C-17 and based upon some IL-76MD technology (see below). The development was accelerated after the large earthquake in 2008 in Sichuan Province.

Assistance was sought from Antonov Design Bureau in 2008. Its max payload was expected to be 50~66t and max TO weight 180~200t, depending on the exact type of engine powering the aircraft. Fitted with high-lifting devices along the wing leading and trailing edges plus six pairs of main landing wheels, Y-20 is capable of taking off from relatively short and unpaved runways, making many unpaved airfields behind the battlefield accessible. Like C-17, it may also feature supercritical wings which give the aircraft a better fuel economy thus further extends its range.

Currently it is unclear whether the aircraft will have an IFR probe installed or not. Other features include a four-crew glass cockpit with HUD and air data sensors mounted on top of and beneath the head section. Overall Y-20 appears fatter and shorter than Il-76MD, bearing some resemblance to Japanese C-2 and Ukrainian An-70 transport. This suggests that its cargo bay dimension is a wider and taller, making it more versatile by being able to to carry a variety of oversize load, including a ZTZ99 MBT. The prototypes and the initial batch are powered by Russian D-30KP-2/WS-18 turbofan, later by the modified WS-10 (WS-20 Huanghe?) high-bypass turbofan (as Y-20A?).

The head section of a full-scale metal mock-up was constructed by 2008 and the first flight is projected in 2012. On August 20, 2009 SAC started to build the rear fuselage of the first prototype. It was reported (April 2010) that the full-scale mock-up was completed in early 2010. Y-20 is also expected to be converted to a tanker replacing the obsolete H-6U (see below). It may also serve as the carrier of the next generation AWACS replacing KJ-2000.

In January 2012 it was rumored that the airframe of the first prototype has been constructed, to be fitted with the avionics and engines. So far a total of two prototypes (001 & 002) have been constructed. The first low speed taxiing took place on December 21, 2012 at the CFTE airfield in Yanliang. The first flight of prototype 20001 took place on January 26, 2013. Currently the 001 prototype has been wearing a new dark blue color scheme. The latest rumor (May 2013) suggested that the second prototype (20002) just rolled out of the assembly line.

Aircraft flight control system
Flight deck

Compartment that contains navigation equipment and controls and from which the crew pilots the aircraft.

A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight. Aircraft engine controls are also considered as flight controls as they change speed.

Air data computer: Computer that calculates the flight parameters (speed, altitude and course).
Aileron: To roll left & right.
Aileron Trim: To roll left & right a little.
Anti-Collision Warning Beacon: A red light to warn other aircraft and help prevent mid-air collisions.
A.P.U. Exhaust: This is the exhaust pipe for the A.P.U. (Auxiliary Power Unit). The A.P.U. is an engine in the tail of the aircraft. It is used only on the ground. It generates electrical power for the aircraft and is used to start the jet engines.
Autopilot controls: Device that enables the aircraft to be piloted and kept on course automatically.
Captain’s seat: Left seat occupied by the pilot, who is in charge of the flight and the crew.
Communication panels: Panel for selecting radio frequencies on which pilots can send or receive.
Control console: Component located between the two seats that contains part of the instrumentation.
Cockpit / Flight Deck: In this room, pilots aviate, communicate, and navigate.
Control wheel: Lever that activates the control column from back to front and from side to side.
Control column: Steering component that causes an aircraft to bank to the left or to the right and to ascend or descend.
Elevator Trim: To pitch up & down a little.
Engine Cowling: The main cover or housing of the engine.
Engine Mounting: Used to fix the engine to the wing.
Engine and crew alarm display: Screen that controls the engines and displays alarm signals in the event of system failure.
Engine fuel valves: Knobs for opening and shutting the fuel supply to the engines.
Flap: To increase lift during take-off and landing. Pilots extend the flaps to increase the wing's area. This increases the lift.
First officer’s seat: Right seat occupied by the copilot, who is second in command.
Flap lever: Control stick that activates the wing slats and the trailing edge flaps.
Fuselage: The body or structure of the aircraft.
Horizontal Stabiliser: Stabilises the aircraft around the lateral axis.
Landing Gear: Pilots extend or retract the landing gear (wheels) during take-off and landing.
Landing gear lever: Control for lowering and raising the landing gear.
Leading Edge: Front section of the wing.
Lighting: Device that diffuses light over a shelf on which the pilots place navigation charts.
Main Elevator: To pitch up & down.
Main Rudder: To yaw (turn) left & right.
Navigation display: Screen that shows the aircraft’s position and flight plan and weather conditions.
Nose Gear: The front wheels of the aircraft. Aircraft also have MAIN GEAR (wheels under the aircraft's wings) and sometimes BODY GEAR (wheels under the aircraft's body).
Overhead switch panel: Panel made up of the switches that cut the hydraulic, electric and fuel circuits.
Primary flight display: Screen that shows the main parameters necessary for piloting (aircraft’s position in relation to the horizon, altitude and course).
Propeller: Gives an aircraft thrust or power.
Pylons: Used to stabilise the air flow behind the wing. Without pylons, the air is unstable. This makes drag, and reduces the aircraft's speed and performance.
Radome: The aircraft's radar is inside the radome or nose of the aircraft.
Rudder Trim: To yaw left & right a little.
Speaker Integrated device that relays audible messages such as alarms to the pilots.
Speed Brakes / Air Brakes: Used to slow the plane in the air and while landing.
Spoilers: Used to destroy lift and keep the plane on the ground. This is important while landing. Without spoilers, the plane bounces on the runway. This can damage the landing gear. Some pilots prefer hard landings to help prevent bounce.
Stabiliser Trim: To increase the angle of attack (A.O.A.). Basically, the angle of attack is the angle the wing hits the air.
Standby altimeter: Instrument that shows the vertical distance between the aircraft and the ground; it is used in the event the flight display fails.
Standby airspeed indicator: Instrument that shows the aircraft’s speed; it is used in the event the flight display fails.
Standby attitude indicator: Screen that shows the aircraft’s position in relation to the horizon; it is used in the event the flight display fails.
Systems display: Screen that controls various systems, such as air pressure and the electric and hydraulic circuits.
Speedbrake lever: Command stick that releases the wing flaps to brake the aircraft immediately after landing.
Trailing Edge: Back section of the wing.
Transponder: Instruments that, with the autopilot, control the engine power and guide the aircraft on its course.
Throttles: Control levers for the engines; they regulate speed and thrust.
Vertical Stabiliser: Stabilises the aircraft around the vertical axis.
Vortex Generator: Used to create lift in areas of the wing that have no or very little lift, for example, next to the engine mounting.
Winglet: Used to reduce the vortex at the end of the wing. A vortex is unstable circular air. It makes drag, and reduces the aircraft's speed and performance.
Wing Tip: The end or tip of the wing.
Windshield: Highly durable pane made of glass and plastic that provides good visibility.

What is Avionics?
Avionics is a term used to describe all of the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.

Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles. These can be as simple as a searchlight for a police helicopter or as complicated as the tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.

Aircraft Control System
Aircraft flight control systems
Aircraft management systems
Aircraft networks
Collision-avoidance systems
Disaster relief and air ambulance
Mission or tactical avionics
Military communications
Weather systems
Here are further guidelines.

Flaps and Slats
What is the difference between flaps and slats?
Flaps are at the back of the wing, slats are at the front.

What are flaps used for?
Flaps are located on the trailing edge of each wing, usually between the fuselage and the ailerons, and extend downward (and often outward) from the wing when put into use. The purpose of the flaps is to generate more lift at slower airspeed, which enables the airplane to fly at a greatly reduced speed with a lower risk of stalling. This is especially useful during takeoff and landing. When extended further, flaps also generate more drag which slows the airplane down much faster than just reducing throttle.

Flaps during takeoff
Flaps during landing
Maneuvering flaps

Flaps are devices used to alter the lift characteristics of a wing and are mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed at which the aircraft can be safely flown and to increase the angle of descent for landing. They shorten takeoff and landing distances. Flaps do this by lowering the stall speed and increasing the drag.


Wing Flaps for Lift Augmentation in Aircraft
What is a cockpit used for?

Boeing 747-8 flight deck
The cockpit is the command center for the airplane. All the controls are there, including all the instruments. The pilot will be seated there, and will use all the controls to fly everyone to their destination safely. You could call it the brain of the plane.

What are the construction materials that are required for an aircraft?
An airplane is made of lightweight materials. The lightest one is aluminium: the plane is covered in it. It's light and easy to move, while being strong when re-enforced properly. The bones of the plane are made of steel or titanium: these are heavier, but studier.

Why does lift increase as speed increases?
Fast air has low pressure. So when plane's speed increases, the speed of the air over the wing does too. This means that the pressure above the wing drops. Since the air below the wing is moving more slowly, the high pressure there will push up on the wing, and lift it into the air.
What should be displayed first in an aircraft manufacturer’s fuselage, aircraft engines, wings, or aircraft specifications?

Aircraft specifications should be displayed first.

What is the main route, destination, and focus of this aircraft?
Intercontinental aircraft.
For example, North America to Asia destinations.
North America to African destinations.
North America to South America destinations.
North America to Australia destinations.

Contributors for intellectual property, materials, human resources, and locations for these aircraft.
Who can be contributors for intellectual property, materials, human resources, and locations for these aircraft?
See the list of states that can be contributors for intellectual property, materials, human resources, and locations for these aircrafts.
North American States
  1. Alabama (AL)

  2. Alaska (AK)

  3. Arizona (AZ)

  4. Arkansas (AR)

  5. Alberta (AB)

  6. British Columbia (BC)

  7. California (CA)

  8. Colorado (CO)

  9. Connecticut (CT)

  10. Delaware (DE)

  11. Florida (FL)

  12. Georgia (GA)

  13. Hawaii (HI)

  14. Idaho (ID)

  15. Illinois (IL)

  16. Indiana (IN)

  17. Iowa (IA)

  18. Kansas (KS)

  19. Kentucky (KY)

  20. Louisiana (LA)

  21. Maine (ME)

  22. Maryland (MD)

  23. Massachusetts (MA)

  24. Michigan (MI)

  25. Minnesota (MN)

  26. Mississippi (MS)

  27. Missouri (MO)

  28. Montana (MT)

  29. Manitoba (MB)

  30. Mexico (MX)

  31. Nebraska (NE)

  32. Nevada (NV)

  33. New Hampshire (NH)

  34. New Jersey (NJ)

  35. New Mexico (NM)

  36. New York (NY)

  37. North Carolina (NC)

  38. North Dakota (ND)

  39. New Brunswick (NB)

  40. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL)

  41. Northwest Territories (NT)

  42. Nova Scotia (NS)

  43. Nunavut (NU)

  44. Ohio (OH)

  45. Oklahoma (OK)

  46. Oregon (OR)

  47. Ontario (ON)

  48. Pennsylvania (PA)

  49. Prince Edward Island (PE)

  50. Quebec (QC)

  51. Rhode Island (RI)

  52. South Carolina (SC)

  53. South Dakota (SD)

  54. Saskatchewan (SK)

  55. Tennessee (TN)

  56. Texas (TX)

  57. Utah (UT)

  58. Vermont (VT)

  59. Virginia (VA)

  60. Washington (WA)

  61. West Virginia (WV)

  62. Wisconsin (WI)

  63. Wyoming (WY)

  64. Yukon (YT)
    Asian States

  65. Albania

  66. Andorra

  67. Armenia

  68. Austria

  69. Azerbaijan

  70. Arkhangelsk Oblast

  71. Anhui Province

  72. Afghanistan

  73. Assam

  74. Arunachal Pradesh

  75. Andhra Pradesh

  76. Andaman and Nicober Islands

  77. Balochistan

  78. Bangladesh

  79. Bhutan

  80. Brunei

  81. Belarus

  82. Belgium

  83. Bosnia and Herzegovina

  84. Bulgaria

  85. Bihar

  86. Bahrain

  87. Chechnya

  88. Croatia

  89. Cyprus

  90. Czech Republic

  91. Cambodia

  92. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

  93. Chhattisgarh

  94. Daman and Diu

  95. Dadra and Nagar Haveli

  96. Denmark

  97. England

  98. Estonia

  99. East Timor

  100. Finland

  101. Fujian Province

  102. France

  103. Gujarat

  104. Goa

  105. Georgia

  106. Germany

  107. Gibraltar

  108. Greece

  109. Gansu Province

  110. Guangdong Province

  111. Guangxi Province

  112. Guizhou

  113. Heilongjiang

  114. Hong Kong

  115. Hubei

  116. Hainan Province

  117. Henan Province

  118. Hunan Province

  119. Himachal Pradesh

  120. Hungary

  121. Inner Mongolia

  122. Indonesia

  123. Iran

  124. Iraq

  125. Iceland

  126. Ireland

  127. Italy

  128. Japan

  129. Jeddah

  130. Jiangxi Province

  131. Jordan

  132. Jiangsu

  133. Jiangxi

  134. Jilin

  135. Jharkhand

  136. Kashmir

  137. Karnataka

  138. Kerala

  139. Kazakhstan

  140. Korea - North

  141. Korea - South

  142. Kyrgyzstan

  143. Kuwait

  144. Kaliningrad Oblast

  145. Lakshadweep

  146. Latvia

  147. Liechtenstein

  148. Lithuania

  149. Luxembourg

  150. Laos

  151. Lebanon

  152. Liaoning Province

  153. Liaoning

  154. Manipur

  155. Mizoram

  156. Maharashtra

  157. Madhya Pradesh

  158. Meghalaya

  159. Malaysia

  160. Maldives

  161. Magadan Oblast

  162. Mongolia

  163. Myanmar

  164. Macedonia

  165. Malta

  166. Medina

  167. Mecca

  168. Moldova

  169. Monaco

  170. Montenegro

  171. NCT of Delhi

  172. Nagaland

  173. Netherlands

  174. Northern Ireland

  175. Norway

  176. Ningxia

  177. Nepal

  178. Oman

  179. Orissa

  180. Puducherry

  181. Punjab

  182. Peshawar

  183. Philippines

  184. Poland

  185. Portugal

  186. Palestine

  187. Qinghai Province

  188. Qinghai

  189. Qatar

  190. Rajasthan

  191. Romania

  192. Sikkim

  193. Syria

  194. Sindh

  195. Singapore

  196. Sri Lanka

  197. Scotland

  198. Serbia

  199. Slovakia

  200. Slovenia

  201. Spain

  202. Sweden

  203. Switzerland

  204. Shaanxi Province

  205. Shandong

  206. Shanxi

  207. Sichuan

  208. Taiwan

  209. Tajikistan

  210. Thailand

  211. Tibet

  212. Tripura

  213. Tamil Nadu

  214. Turkey

  215. Turkmenistan

  216. Ukraine

  217. Uzbekistan

  218. Uttarakhand

  219. United Arab Emirates

  220. Uttar Pradesh

  221. Vietnam

  222. Vatican City

  223. Wales

  224. West Bengal

  225. Xinjiang

  226. Yunnan

  227. Yemen

  228. Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

  229. Zhejiang

  230. Algeria

  231. Angola

  232. Burundi

  233. Benin

  234. Burkina Faso

  235. Botswana

  236. Cape Verde

  237. Côte d'Ivoire

  238. Comoros

  239. Cameroon

  240. Central African Republic

  241. Chad

  242. Canary Islands

  243. Ceuta

  244. Democratic Republic of the Congo

  245. Djibouti

  246. Egypt

  247. Eritrea

  248. Ethiopia

  249. Equatorial Guinea

  250. Gabon

  251. Gambia

  252. Ghana

  253. Guinea

  254. Guinea-Bissau

  255. Kenya

  256. Liberia

  257. Lesotho

  258. Madagascar

  259. Malawi

  260. Mauritius

  261. Mayotte

  262. Mozambique

  263. Mali

  264. Mauritania

  265. Madeira

  266. Melilla

  267. Morocco

  268. Niger

  269. Nigeria

  270. Namibia

  271. Réunion

  272. Rwanda

  273. Republic of the Congo

  274. São Tomé and Príncipe

  275. Saint Helena

  276. Senegal

  277. Sierra Leone

  278. Seychelles

  279. Somalia

  280. South Africa

  281. Swaziland

  282. South Sudan

  283. Sudan

  284. Tanzania

  285. Togo

  286. Tunisia

  287. Uganda

  288. Western Sahara

  289. Zambia

  290. Zimbabwe

  291. Northern Territory

  292. South Australia

  293. Queensland

  294. New South Wales

  295. Victoria (Australia)

  296. Western Australian

  297. Tasmania

  298. New Zealand

  299. Acre (Asif Province)

  300. Alagoas

  301. Amapá

  302. Amazonas

  303. Bahia

  304. Buenos Aires Province

  305. Ceará

  306. Chubut Province

  307. Córdoba Province

  308. Goiás

  309. Bolivia

  310. Chile

  311. Colombia

  312. Ecuador

  313. Falkland Islands

  314. French Guiana

  315. Guyana

  316. Paraguay

  317. Peru

  318. Río Negro

  319. Santa Cruz

  320. Santa Fe Province

  321. Salta Province

  322. South Georgia

  323. Suriname

  324. Uruguay

  325. Venezuela
If there is any breach of security that cannot be controlled locally, this aircraft with military officers will come to your service.

Uses of each of these aircraft.
What are the benefits provided by these aircraft?
Military Aviation
Supporting emergency preparedness
Fighting forest fires.
Passenger air transportation
Supporting law enforcement/highway patrol.
Supporting drugs/narcotics/border patrol.
Supporting surveillance
Supporting a host of other applications
Transporting cargo, parts and mail
Transporting of government personnel globally, regionally, or locally.
Transporting third parties.
Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) and Military Sealift
Cargo transportation of heavy and oversized battle tanks, heavy equipment, combat helicopters.

Professionals required for each aircraft.
Design Office
Aircraft Assembly
AF Flight Test Center (AFFTC)
Aircraft Training Center
Aerospace engineers
    How many aerospace engineers are required to manufacture all parts of a large aircraft?
    How many aerospace engineers are required to assemble all parts of a large aircraft?
    If all parts of a large aircraft are ready, and all aerospace engineers are ready, how long will it take to assemble all parts, do a flight test, and put an aircraft in service?
    What tests will you do and what questions do you need answered before you clear an aircraft as fit for safe flight?
    What do you understand by a large aircraft?
    If the pilot dies in flight, what will happen?
    Where is the central command of all aircraft operations in world?
Aircraft fabricator job description
Aircraft Structural Maintenance Specialist
Aircraft mechanic
Aircraft Structural Mechanic
Assembler A
Composite parts
Electrical assembler
Flight line mechanic
Functional test technician
Lean Practitioner Manager K
Manufacturing Manager L
Manufacturing Manager Level K
Mechanical assembler
Quality inspector
Sealer and tester
Tool and die maker

Aircraft fabricator job description
Assemblers – aircraft fabricators – are a significant part in the aircraft manufacturing process.

A structural metal fabricator is responsible for cutting, aligning, and making sure that pieces fit together prior to welding. A fiberglass fabricator creates products made from fiberglass.

What tasks do aircraft fabricators working with metal carry out?

Aircraft fabricators will follow detailed drawings or specifications to find out job, material and equipment requirements, and much of the work will involve cutting, rolling and shaping, heating or hammering metal products to fabricate parts or sub-assemblies.

Other tasks much include heat treating metal parts and components and setting up and operating hand and machine tools, welding equipment or computerised machines. The work also involves assembling parts and structures by lining up and joining them by welding, bolting or riveting.

There may also be an element of finishing products by cleaning, polishing, filing or bathing them in acid solutions. Experienced aircraft fabricators may work as part of a research and development team.

In a role as an aircraft fabricator it’s likely you will be working to ensure every aircraft or aircraft section is built and completed on time, on budget, and defect free. Operations will be performed according to Industry accepted standards and often ‘lean’ best practices will need to be adhered to – meaning produced with no waste and to the slimmest budgets.

Another important element of the aircraft fabricator job is to ensure material requirements are identified and communicated in a timely fashion to the sourcing department.

To succeed as an aircraft fabricator you’ll need to be the kind of person who enjoys technical activities, is interested in computer programmable machinery, has the strength to handle tools, machines and materials, and has good hand-eye co-ordination.
Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Structural Maintenance Specialist
Career Tasks

Designs, repairs, modifies and fabricates aircraft, metal, plastic, composite, advanced composite, low observables, and bonded structural parts and components. Applies preservative treatments to aircraft, missiles, and support equipment

Assembles structural parts and components to meet requirements for preserving structural integrity and low observable qualities.

Assesses damage to aircraft structural components and low observable coatings. Advises on structural and low observable repair, modification, and corrosion protection treatment with respect to original strength, weight, and contour to maintain structural and low observable integrity. Ensures aircraft component balance is maintained. Assembles repairs using special fasteners and adhesives. Checks repairs for serviceability according to specifications and technical publications. Manufactures jigs, fixtures, forms, and molds.

Paints aircraft, missiles, and support equipment (SE). Identifies, removes, and treats corrosion using mechanical and chemical procedures. Applies corrosion protective and low observable coatings. Applies aircraft paint schemes and markings.

Uses metalworking equipment and tools to form, cut, bend, and fasten replacement or repair parts to damaged structures and components. Fabricates, repairs, and assembles tubing and cable assemblies for aerospace weapon systems and SE.

Maintains and inspects tools and equipment. Performs operator maintenance and service inspections on shop equipment and tools. Ensures lockout and tagout procedures are accomplished prior to performing shop equipment maintenance. Stores, handles, and disposes of hazardous waste and materials according to environmental standards.

Inspects structures and components and determines operational status. Interprets inspection findings, and determines corrective action adequacy. Posts entries and maintains maintenance and inspection records. Recommends methods to improve equipment performance and maintenance procedures. Uses automated maintenance systems. Inputs, validates, and analyzes data processed to automated systems. Clears and closes out completed maintenance discrepancies in automated maintenance systems.

Knowledge is mandatory of: aircraft construction features; identification and characteristics of aerospace materials; repair of metal, tubing, cable, plastic, fiberglass, bonded honeycomb, and composite structural components; shop drawing and sheetmetal layout techniques; shop mathematics; corrosion identification, removal, repair, and prevention; cleaning of metals; application of protective coatings, low observable materials, and markings; proper use, mixing, and storage of acids, solvents, alcohol, caustics, primers, and paints; and proper handling and disposal of hazardous waste and materials.

Balance aircraft control surfaces and ensure that repairs are pressure-, fluid- and weather-tight

Seal fabricated tubing assemblies, select components and fabricate and pull test aircraft cable assemblies

Operate and maintain powered and nonpowered tools and equipment to include precision measurement equipment

Use various methods of identifying metals, such as mechanical and chemical testing, in order to ensure that the proper corrosion treatment procedures are followed

Remove corrosion by using various chemical and mechanical methods and then treat the metal to preserve it

Use spray equipment to apply protective coatings to aircraft structural materials

Construct and apply aircraft markings and insignia

Relevant Interests & Skills

Working with Aircraft and Weaponry
Maintenance and Repair
Working with Your Hands
Chemistry and Physics

Maximum takeoff weight
Aircraft gross weight
Maximum design ramp weight (MDRW)
Maximum design takeoff weight (MDTOW)
Maximum design landing weight (MDLW)
Maximum design zero-fuel weight (MDZFW)
Minimum flight weight (MFW)
Authorised weight limits

Maximum takeoff weight

MTOW = Maximum take-off weight, MLW = Maximum landing weight, TOR = Take-off run (SL, ISA+15°, MTOW), LR = Landing run (SL, ISA+15°, MLW)

Comparison with other aircraft

Antonov An-225 Mriya (Cossack)
Antonov An-225
MTOW: 1,322,774 pounds (600,000 kilograms)

The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) or maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.

MTOW is the heaviest weight at which the aircraft has been shown to meet all the airworthiness requirements applicable to it. MTOW of an aircraft is fixed, and does not vary with altitude or air temperature or the length of the runway to be used for takeoff or landing. A different weight the "maximum permissible takeoff weight", or "regulated takeoff weight", varies according to flap setting, altitude, air temperature, length of runway and other factors. It is different from one takeoff to the next, but can never be higher than the MTOW.

Answers to questions relevant to aircraft manufacture.
Do mergers of aircraft manufacturers hurt or help?
What should the world look forward to in aircraft manufacturing?
What recommendations are there for aircraft manufacturing?
Who all must merge in aircraft manufacturing?
What resources are required to manufacture the types of aircraft displayed here?
How is an aircraft built?
Why are these resources essential for all states around the world?
What is the main purpose of these aircrafts?
Is it possible to manufacture these planet/global aircraft with specifications displayed at this resource?
How should you ideally go ahead with manufacture of large aircraft?
What is aerospace engineering?
What is aerospace electronics?
What are examples of common electronic components?
How are electronic components categorized?
How many aerospace engineers are required to manufacture a large aircraft within 18 months?
What will the aircraft look like?
Do you manufacture these resources within the state?
What do you have to do to manufacture these resources within the state?
What do you understand by open source manufacturing of products?
Do mergers of aircraft manufacturers hurt or help?
Aircraft manufacturers’ mergers help the aviation services.

What should the world look forward to in aircraft manufacturing?
Aircraft manufacturers’ mergers will result in one world aircraft manufacturing entity worldwide, a public service aircraft manufacturing entity.

What recommendations are there for aircraft manufacturing?
There should be a merger of aircraft manufacturers worldwide to one world entity of aircraft manufacturing.

Who all must merge in aircraft manufacturing?
BAE Systems
Fairchild Aerospace
Hawker Beechcraft
Indonesian Aerospace
Lockheed Martin
LZ Auronautical
McDonnell Douglas
Pilatus Aircraft
Piper Aircraft

These entities existed up to January 17, 2014.
New tail numbers will be given to all aircraft worldwide.
What are the specifications of aircraft you manufactured that are in service now?

Aircraft manufacture
What resources are required to manufacture the types of aircraft displayed here?
Engineering resources: Devices, machines, materials, processes, structures, and systems.
Human resources for aircrafts manufacturing.
Methods and services.
Locations to build and assemble various parts and data centers.

Data centers with proper human resources are the most important resources for the manufacture of these aircrafts.

How is an aircraft built?
Data centers with proper human resources are the most important resources for the manufacture of these aircrafts.
Design offices and engineering centres
Aircraft Specifications
Contributors for intellectual property, materials, human resources, locations for these aircraft.
Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment
Aircraft Engines and Engine Parts
Transport of major aircraft sections
Final Assembly and tests
Test program
Flight test
Here are further guidelines.

Flight control surfaces
2.Low Speed Aileron
3.High Speed Aileron
4.Flap track fairing
5.Krüger flaps
7.Three slotted inner flaps
8.Three slotted outer flaps
10.Spoilers Air-brakes

Last Updated: July 27, 2015