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What is a Gastroenterologist?
Patient Intake Form
Gastroenterology Emergencies
What is an ulcer?
Digestive Diseases
    * Abdominal Adhesions
    * Acid Indigestion
    * Acid Reflux
    * Acid Regurgitation
    * Adhesions
    * Alagille Syndrome
    * Anal Fissure
    * Anatomic Problems of the Colon
    * Antacids
    * Anus and Rectum
    * Appendicitis
    * Appendix
    * Autoimmune Hepatitis
    * Bacteria and Foodborne Illness
    * Barium Enema (See Lower GI Series)
    * Barium Swallow (See Lower GI Series)
    * Barrett’s Esophagus
    * Basics, Digestive System
    * Bile Ducts
    * Biliary Atresia
    * Biopsy, Liver
    * Bleeding in the Digestive Tract
    * Bowel and Intestines
    * Bowel Control (Fecal Incontinence)
    * Bowel Control Problems: What You Need to Know
    * Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy
    * Bowel Incontinence
    * Bowel Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)
    * Bristol Stool Form Scale
    * Celiac Disease
    * Celiac Sprue
    * Children and Digestive Problems
    * Cirrhosis
    * Cirrhosis of the Liver
    * Cirrhosis, Primary Biliary
    * Colitis (See Ulcerative Colitis)
    * Collagenous Colitis
    * Colonoscopy
    * Colon Polyps
    * Colostomy
    * Constipation
    * Constipation in Children
    * Continent Ileostomy
    * Copper Storage Disease (See Wilson Disease)
    * Crohn’s Disease
    * Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
    * Dehydration
    * Delayed Gastric Emptying (See Gastroparesis)
    * Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease (for health care professionals)
    * DH (See Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease)
    * Diagnostic Tests
    * Diarrhea
    * Diarrhea
    * Dietary Fiber and Digestive Diseases
    * Digestion
    * The Digestive Diseases Dictionary
    * Directory of Digestive Diseases Organizations
    * Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis
    * Drug Information
    * Dumping Syndrome
    * Duodenal Ulcers
    * Dysentery (See Diarrhea)
    * Dyspepsia (See Indigestion)
    * Eating and Digestive Diseases
    * Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    * Endoscopy
    * Enterocele (See Hernia)
    * ERCP
    * Esophagus
    * Fecal Incontinence
    * Feeding Tube (See Gastroparesis)
    * Fiber
    * Fistula
    * Flatulence
    * Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
    * Foodborne Illness
    * Food Poisoning
    * Gallbladder
    * Gallstones
    * Gas
    * Gas, Heartburn, and Indigestion
    * Gas in the Digestive Tract
    * Gastrin
    * Gastritis
    * Gastroenteritis
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants
    * Gastroparesis
    * GER
    * GERD
    * Gluten-free Diet (See Celiac Disease)
    * Gluten Intolerance (See Celiac Disease)
    * Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (See Celiac Disease)
    * Hepatitis A
    * Hepatitis B
    * Hepatitis C
    * Heartburn
    * Heartburn, Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    * Hemochromatosis
    * Hemorrhoids
    * Hepatitis Publications
    * Hepatolenticular Degeneration (See Wilson Disease)
    * Hernia
    * Hiatal Hernia
    * Hirschsprung Disease
    * H. pylori and Peptic Ulcers
    * IBD (See Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
    * IBS (See Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
    * Ileoanal Reservoir
    * Ileostomy
    * Imaging Studies (See Diagnostic Tests)
    * Incontinence, Fecal
    * Indigestion
    * Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
    * Inguinal Hernia
    * Intestinal Adhesions (See Abdominal Adhesions)
    * Intestinal Gas (See Gas in the Digestive Tract)
    * Intestinal Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)
    * Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction
    * Iron Overload Disease (See Hemochromatosis)
    * Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    * Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children
    * Jaundice (See Biliary Atresia)
    * Kasai Procedure (See Biliary Atresia)
    * Laboratory Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)
    * Lactose Intolerance
    * Laxatives (See Constipation)
    * Liver
    * Liver Biopsy
    * Liver Cirrhosis
    * Liver Transplantation
    * Lower GI Series
    * Lymphocytic Colitis
    * Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (See Bleeding in the Digestive Tract)
    * Medications
    * Ménétrier Disease
    * Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis
    * Milk Intolerance (See Lactose Intolerance)
    * Milk, Problems Digesting
    * Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
    * Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (See NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers)
    * Nontropical Sprue (See Celiac Disease)
    * NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers
    * Ostomy
    * Pancreas
    * Pancreatitis
    * PBC (See Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)
    * Peptic Ulcers
    * Piles (See Hemorrhoids)
    * Polyps
    * Porphyria
    * Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)
    * Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
    * Proctitis
    * PSC (See Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis)
    * Pseudo-obstruction
    * Pyrosis (See Heartburn)
    * Rapid Gastric Emptying
    * Regional Enteritis (See Crohn’s Disease)
    * Regional Ileitis (See Crohn’s Disease)
    * Salivary Glands
    * Short Bowel Syndrome
    * Sigmoidoscopy
    * Smoking and Your Digestive System
    * Statistics, Digestive Diseases
    * Stoma (See Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy)
    * Stomach
    * Stomach Flu (See Viral Gastroenteritis)
    * Stomach Infection (See Bacteria and Foodborne Illness)
    * Stomach Ulcers
    * Stool Diary
    * Summary of Recommendations for Adult Immunization
    * Testing for Celiac Disease
    * Tests for Digestive Diseases
    * Transplantation
    * Traveler’s Diarrhea (See Diarrhea)
    * Ulcerative Colitis
    * Ulcers
    * Upper GI Endoscopy
    * Upper GI Series
    * Upset Stomach (See Indigestion)
    * Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B
    * Viral Gastroenteritis
    * Viral Hepatitis
    * Virtual Colonoscopy
    * Whipple's Disease
    * Wilson Disease
    * X-ray Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)
    * Your Digestive System and How It Works
    Why is digestion important?
    How is food digested?
    How is the digestive process controlled?
    * Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Gastroenterology Research
Q: What is an endoscopy?
A: An endoscopy is a medical procedure used to view the digestive tract,and other internal organs, non surgically. Through the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a lighted camera attached, the internal body structures are seen on a color monitor by the physician.

Q: Why is an endoscopy performed?
A: Endoscopy is often used to evaluate severe stomach pain, ulcers, gastritis, digestive tract bleeding, and to investigate polyps or masses in the colon.
Possible Complications: Possible complications of endoscopy include bleeding, tear in the abdominal wall, and reactions to sedation medications.

Q: Is the procedure done under anesthesia?
A: An endoscopy is performed under sedation, through an IV. The patient usually wakes about an hour after the procedure is done. General anesthesia is given in special circumstances. Preparation: You can prepare for the procedure by fasting 6-8 hours prior to the endoscopy (per doctor's orders) and you will most likely be given a laxative to clear the bowels.

Types of Endoscopy: There are many types of endoscopy procedures, including:
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography)
EGD (Esophogealgastroduodensoscopy)

Q: What is an EGD?
A: Upper endoscopy, also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy, or EGD, uses a thin scope with a light and camera at its tip to look inside of the upper digestive system -- the esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.

Usually performed as an outpatient procedure, upper endoscopy sometimes must be performed in the hospital or emergency room to both identify and treat conditions such as upper digestive system bleeding.

The procedure is commonly used to help identify the causes of:

Nausea and vomiting
Swallowing problems

Endoscopy can also help identify inflammation, ulcers and tumors.

Upper endoscopy is more accurate than X-rays for detecting abnormal growths (such as cancer) and for examining the inside of the upper digestive system. In addition, abnormalities can be treated through the endoscope. For example:
Polyps (growths of tissue in the stomach) can be identified and removed, and tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken for analysis.
Narrowed areas or strictures of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum from cancer or other diseases can be dilated or stretched using balloons or other devices. In some cases, a stent (a wire or plastic mesh tube) can be put in the stricture to prop it open.
Objects stuck in the esophagus can be removed.
Bleeding due to ulcers, cancer or varices can be treated.

Q: How do I prepare for the procedure?
A: Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, have a lung or heart condition, or if you are allergic to any medications.
Also tell your doctor if you have:
Ever been told you need to take antibiotics before a dental or surgical procedure.
Ever had endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves).
An artificial heart valve.
Rheumatic heart disease.

If you have any of these conditions or devices, you may need to take antibiotics before the upper endoscopy.

Do not eat or drink anything for eight hours before the procedure.

Medications for high blood pressure heart conditions, or thyroid conditions may be taken with a small sip of water before the procedure. If you have diabetes and use insulin, you must adjust the dosage of insulin the day of the test. Your diabetes care provider will help you with this adjustment. Bring your diabetes medication with you so you can take it after the procedure.

You will need to bring a responsible adult with you to accompany you home after the procedure. The sedation given during the procedure causes drowsiness and dizziness and impairs your judgment, making it unsafe for you to drive or operate machinery for up to 8 hours following the procedure.

Q: What happens during the procedure?
A: Before your doctor performs the test, he or she will explain the procedure in detail, inkling possible complications and side effects. The doctor will also answer any questions you may have.
You will be asked to wear a hospital gown and to remove your eyeglasses and dentures.
A local anesthetic (pain-relieving medication) may be applied at the back of your throat.
You will be given a pain reliever and a sedative intravenously (in your vein) that will make you feel relaxed and drowsy.
A mouthpiece will be placed in your mouth.
You will lie on your left side during the procedure.
The doctor will insert the endoscope into your mouth, through your esophagus (the "food pipe" leading from your mouth into your stomach) and into your stomach.
Most procedures take 15 to 20 minutes.

Q: What happens after the procedure?
A: You will stay in a recovery room for about 30 minutes for observation.
You may feel a temporary soreness in your throat. Lozenges may help.
The doctor who performed the endoscopy will send the test results to your primary or referring doctor.
The specialist or your primary provider will discuss the results with you after the procedure. If the results indicate that prompt medical attention is needed, the necessary arrangements will be made and your referring provider will be notified.
If you have severe abdominal pain, a continuous cough, fever, chills, chest pain, nausea or vomiting within 72 hours after the procedure, call your doctor's office right away or go to the emergency room.

Q: Is endoscopy safe?
A: Serious risks with an endoscopy are rare. However, excessive bleeding is always a possibility and rarely a tear in the esophagus or stomach wall can occur.

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