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  1. Human Brain Functions
Are humans superior to animals and plants?
Is there a difference between anthropology and human health care?
What is biology?
What is life?
When did life begin on Planet earth?
What is the population of humans on the planet earth?
What needs to be modified in scientific classification of living things?
How should you elaborate humans in the scientific classification of living things?
What is health?
What is human health care?
Are humans superior to animals and plants?

Is there a difference between anthropology and human health care?

What is biology?
Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.

What is life?
When did life begin on Planet earth?

Here are further guidelines.


What is health?
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism.

What is human health care?
Human health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.

What is the population of humans on the planet earth?
By 2013, the global human population was estimated to be around 7 billion.

Scientific classification

What needs to be modified in scientific classification of living things?
Humans have to be categorized separately.

Homo or homo sapiens should not be connected to humans.
Homo has various different meanings, thus confusing others.

How should you elaborate humans in the scientific classification of living things?
Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Mammalia
Order Primates
Family Hominidae
Genus Intellectual (renamed after research of Asif Qureshi. Do not write Homo)
Species sapiens

You can also elaborate in alphabetical order

Class Mammalia
Domain Eukarya
Family Hominidae
Genus Intellectual (renamed after research of Asif Qureshi, Do not write Homo)
Kingdom Animalia
Order Primates
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Species sapiens

What is health?
What is human health care?
Here are further guidelines.
Human Body

Anatomy Systems

11 Systems of the Human Body

1.Cardiovascular SystemBlood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.
2.Digestive SystemBreaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to blood cells.
3.Endocrine SystemGlands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells. Glands e.g. adrenal gland, pineal gland, ovary.
4.Immune and Lymphatic Systems The immune and lymphatic systems are two closely related organ systems that share several organs and physiological functions. The immune system is our body’s defense system against infectious pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi as well as parasitic animals and protists. The immune system works to keep these harmful agents out of the body and attacks those that manage to enter. The lymphatic system is a system of capillaries, vessels, nodes.

Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in immunity.
5.Integumentary SystemForms external body covering and protects deeper tissue from injury e.g. hair, skin & nails.
6.Muscular SystemAllows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture & produces heat.
7.Nervous SystemFast acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. Brain, nerves & spinal cord.
8, Reproductive System
    Female Reproductive System
    Male Reproductive System
Male reproductive system

The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories.

The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the testes which are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymis for development and storage. The second category are the ejaculatory fluid producing glands which include the seminal vesicles, prostate, and the vas deferens. The final category are those used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa (sperm) within the male, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, and Cowper's gland.

Female reproductive system

The human female reproductive system contains three main parts: the vagina, which leads from the vulva, the vaginal opening, to the uterus; the uterus, which holds the developing fetus; and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova. The breasts are involved during the parenting stage of reproduction, but in most classifications they are not considered to be part of the female reproductive system.
9.Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
10.Skeletal SystemProtects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones.
11.Urinary SystemEliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body.
Here are further guidelines.
100 Very Cool Facts About The Human Body
effects of aging on the human body
Human Body Systems

100 trillion cells
206 bones
600 muscles
22 internal organs
The 206 Bones of the Human Body
Human Body (206)
Axial Skeleton (80) Appendicular Skeleton (126)
Skull (28) Torso (52) Upper Extremity (32 x 2 = 64) Lower Extremity (31 x 2 = 62)
Paired Bones (11 x 2 = 22)
  1. Nasal
  2. Lacrimal
  3. Inferior Nasal Concha
  4. Maxiallary
  5. Zygomatic
  6. Temporal
  7. Palatine
  8. Parietal
  9. Malleus
  10. Incus
  11. Stapes
Paired Bones (12 x 2 = 24)
  1. Rib 1
  2. Rib 2
  3. Rib 3
  4. Rib 4
  5. Rib 5
  6. Rib 6
  7. Rib 7
  8. Rib 8 (False)
  9. Rib 9 (False)
  10. Rib 10 (False)
  11. Rib 11 (Floating)
  12. Rib 12 (Floating)
  1. Scapula
  2. Clavicle
  3. Humerus
  4. Radius
  5. Ulna
  6. Scaphoid
  7. Lunate
  8. Traquetrum
  9. Pisiform
  10. Hamate
  11. Capitate
  12. Trapezoid
  13. Trapezium
  14. Metacarpal 1
  15. Proximal Phalange 1
  16. Distal Phalange 1
  17. Metacarpal 2
  18. Proximal Phalange 2
  19. Middle Phalange 2
  20. Distal Phalange 2
  21. Metacarpal 3
  22. Proximal Phalange 3
  23. Middle Phalange 3
  24. Distal Phalange 3
  25. Metacarpal 4
  26. Proximal Phalange 4
  27. Middle Phalange 4
  28. Distal Phalange 4
  29. Metacarpal 5
  30. Proximal Phalange 5
  31. Middle Phalange 5
  32. Distal Phalange 5
  1. Hip (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis)
  2. Femur
  3. Patella
  4. Tibia
  5. Fibula
  6. Talus
  7. Calcaneus
  8. Navicular
  9. Medial Cuneiform
  10. Middle Cuneiform
  11. Lateral Cuneiform
  12. Cuboid
  13. Metacarpal 1
  14. Proximal Phalange 1
  15. Distal Phalange 1
  16. Metacarpal 2
  17. Proximal Phalange 2
  18. Middle Phalange 2
  19. Distal Phalange 2
  20. Metacarpal 3
  21. Proximal Phalange 3
  22. Middle Phalange 3
  23. Distal Phalange 3
  24. Metacarpal 4
  25. Proximal Phalange 4
  26. Middle Phalange 4
  27. Distal Phalange 4
  28. Metacarpal 5
  29. Proximal Phalange 5
  30. Middle Phalange 5
  31. Distal Phalange 5
  1. Frontal
  2. Ethmoid
  3. Vomer
  4. Sphenoid
  5. Mandible
  6. Occipital
  1. Hyoid
  2. Sternum
  3. Cervical Vertebrae 1 (atlas)
  4. C2 (axis)
  5. C3
  6. C4
  7. C5
  8. C6
  9. C7
  10. Thorasic Vertebrae 1
  11. T2
  12. T3
  13. T4
  14. T5
  15. T6
  16. T7
  17. T8
  18. T9
  19. T10
  20. T11
  21. T12
  22. Lumbar Vertebrae 1
  23. L2
  24. L3
  25. L4
  26. L5
  27. Sacrum
  28. Coccyx
Human anatomy by category
Head Anatomy
Neck Anatomy
Shoulder Anatomy
Back Anatomy
Chest Anatomy
Abdominal Anatomy
Hip Anatomy
Upper Leg Anatomy
Knee Anatomy
Lower Leg Anatomy
Ankle Anatomy
Foot Anatomy
Upper Arm Anatomy
Elbow Anatomy
Forearm Anatomy
Wrist Anatomy
Hand Anatomy
Skin Anatomy
Internal Organ Anatomy
Internal Organs Anatomy
Gall bladder
Large intestine
Small intestine
Adrenal Glands
Parathyroid gland
Pituitary gland
Prostate gland
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings.
Human Health Care Settings
Human Body Quiz
What is human anatomy?
Internet Human Health Care Services
Role of Minerals in the Body
Types of human deformities
Human Brain Functions
  1. Auditory Processing

  2. Blood Pressure Control

  3. Breathing Control

  4. Communication and Language

  5. Memory and Learning

  6. Movements

  7. Problem Solving and Emotions

  8. Reasoning A Definitive Characteristic of Human Nature

  9. Regulation of Heartbeat

  10. Sensory Perception

  11. Visual Processing

Human Brain Functions

Auditory Processing

The perception, recognition and interpretation of the stimuli, related to the sense of hearing, are accomplished by the assistance of Temporal Lobe that stretches across both the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex and is located beneath the lateral fissure. The function of this structurally and functionally specialized region of the brain is not just limited to auditory processing, it is also involved in the production of emotional attitudes, storage of new memories, processing sensory output and the retention of visual memories.

Blood Pressure Control

The maintenance and regulation of blood pressure is one of the involuntary human brain functions performed by the medullar region of your brain that connects the higher parts of Central Nervous System with the spinal cord. It keeps the diastolic (minimum) and systolic (maximum) pressure in the arteries under normal limits, and in case it rises beyond the bearable limits, you are very likely to suffer from heart-attack, brain hemorrhage or other critical circulatory disorders.
Breathing Control

Can you take breathing under your voluntary command or control and continue the activity while sleeping? The answer to the first part of the question is no and the reason is explained by the second phrase, i.e. if it were really under your deliberate action, you wouldn't be able to breathe while sleeping, and consequently die! The posterior part of hindbrain, called medulla oblongata, controls involuntary tasks of your body, such as gaseous exchange. The alternative expansion and contraction or relaxation of lung muscles, lowering and elevation of diaphragm, and the similar activity of chest muscles are done quite automatically without even thinking so.

Communication and Language

Broca's and Wernicke's Areas are primarily associated with the production and comprehension of speech sounds, respectively. Broca's area is located in the Frontal Lobe, while Wernicke's area is found at the junction between the temporal and parietal lobe. So, this part of the brain assists you in communication with other members of the society. Non fluent and fluent aphasias are the disorders of language that are caused by any damage or injury to the areas that are responsible for the creation and perception of speech sounds.

Memory and Learning

The hippocampus is located in the temporal lobe of telencephalon and is considered as one of the major components of human brain that plays an important role in the process of learning and memory processing. Once you receive any kind of information through your sensory organs, it is processed in the brain and temporarily stored in the short term memory. The function of the medial temporal lobe is to consolidate the information from short term memory to the long-term memory and carry out the spatial navigation.


One of the important human brain functions is that of the production and coordination of miscellaneous body movements. The movements can be of two types, viz. voluntary and involuntary. They occur in various parts of your body, for example, arms, legs, and neck muscles are controlled by conscious actions, while beating of heart and breathing are the involuntary ones. The conscious activities are directed by cerebrum and originate from the motor areas of the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex. Just imagine, if there were no movement in your body, there would be no life or soul in it!

Problem Solving and Emotions

Humans, among all the advanced creatures on earth, have profound capability of understanding, evaluating, and offering a comprehensive and applicable solution to the critical issues of life. You also know that man is called the 'emotional beast' because of the variety of emotional attitudes in response to various real life situations. Both of these assignments fall under the domain of Frontal Lobe of the cerebral cortex. However, these problem solving characteristics are also found in some lower animals that simply follow the genetic programs already present in their brain, but are unable to reason (think over) and plan the tasks.

Reasoning A Definitive Characteristic of Human Nature

Thinking or reasoning is performed by the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, and this is what distinguishes you as the most advanced and superior creature on the planet earth. Cognition or intellect is that capacity of human beings which enables them to challenge social or religious beliefs and verify facts. It is one of the amazing brain facts that the development of knowledge in various fields, such as science, art, philosophy, mathematics and language is solely owed to the marvelous potential of your reasoning.

Regulation of Heartbeat

The heartbeat rate or regular pumping of blood by heart is vital to overall functioning of the body as it is responsible for the delivery and elimination of the respiratory gases and the products of metabolism across each smallest part of your body. If there is any delay in the supply of oxygen and essential nutrients, the deprived cells start dying, and an extended delay may even lead to your death. Medulla oblongata is the organ associated with the regulation of you heartbeat rate and is comprised of the lower part of brainstem or hindbrain.

Sensory Perception

All of the five traditional senses, namely, sight (vision), hearing (auditory), smell (olfactory), taste (gustation) and touch (somatosensory), are perceived, processed and controlled by one of the major parts of brain, i.e. cerebrum. It particularly involves the primary sensory areas. The perception of the world around you is developed by the sensory information that is synthesized by these regions of the cerebral cortex.

Visual Processing

Did you ever think how your brain creates a perfect visual image of the things you see in the world around you? Yes, this is the task assigned to the occipital lobe of the telencephalon region of your brain that receives the visual signals from the retina of your eye via the Optic Nerve, and after processing, converts it into the mirror image of the same object.
Here are further guidelines.
Last Updated: May 22, 2018