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Are you looking for concise, practical answers to those questions that are often left unanswered by traditional fracture management references?
Are you seeking brief, evidence-based advice for complicated cases or controversial decisions?

Q: What is orthopedics?
A: Orthopedics is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, care and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The musculoskeletal system consists of the body's bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves.

Q: What does an orthopedist do?
Orthopedic Emergency
* Ankle Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Anterior Glenohumeral Instability
* Acquired Flatfoot
* Acromioclavicular Injury
* Ankle Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Blast Injuries
* Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Emergency Medicine
* Bunion
* Bursitis in Emergency Medicine
* Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Emergency Medicine
* Cervical Spine Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Cervical Strain
* Clavicle Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Clubfoot
* Deltoid Fibrosis
* Diaphragmatic Injuries in Emergency Medicine
* Distal Clavicle Osteolysis
* Elbow Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Elbow Fracture
* Emergent Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome
* Epidural Hematoma in Emergency Medicine
* Face Fracture
* Femur Fracture
* Fifth-Toe Deformities
* Fingertip Injuries
* Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST)
* Foot Dislocation
* Foot Fracture
* Forearm Fractures in Emergency Medicine
* Freiberg Infraction
* Frontal Fracture
* Gamekeeper Thumb
* General Principles of Fracture Care
* Hand Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Hand Fracture
* Hanging Injuries and Strangulation
* Hemorrhagic Shock in Emergency Medicine
* High-Pressure Hand Injury
* Hip Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Hip Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Humerus Fracture
* Ingrown Toenails
* Interphalangeal Dislocation
* Intractable Plantar Keratosis
* Knee Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Knee Fracture
* Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease in Emergency Medicine
* Lower Genitourinary Trauma
* Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders
* Mandible Dislocation
* Mandible Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Mechanical Back Pain
* Multidirectional Glenohumeral Instability
* Nailbed Injuries
* Neck Trauma
* Orbital Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Osgood-Schlatter Disease in Emergency Medicine
* Pelvic Fracture in Emergency Medicine
* Penetrating Abdominal Trauma
* Penetrating Abdominal Trauma in Emergency Medicine
* Penetrating Neck Trauma
* Peripheral Vascular Injuries
* Peroneal Tendon Pathology
* Plantar Fasciitis in Emergency Medicine
* Plantar Fasciitis Surgery
* Plantar Heel Pain
* Postconcussive Syndrome in Emergency Medicine
* Replantation
* Rhabdomyolysis in Emergency Medicine
* Rib Fracture
* Rotator Cuff Injuries
* Scapular Fracture
* Shoulder Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Soft Tissue Hand Injury
* Soft Tissue Knee Injury
* Sprain
* Sternal Fracture
* Sternoclavicular Joint Injury
* Subdural Hematoma in Emergency Medicine (Neurosurgery or Orthopedics)
* Tarsal Coalition
* Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
* Tibia and Fibula Fracture
* Turf Toe
* Upper Genitourinary Trauma
* Wrist Dislocation in Emergency Medicine
* Wrist Fracture in Emergency Medicine
Back and Spine
Hand and Wrist
Hip Knee
Foot and Ankle
Fractures and Trauma
    Q: What are Fractures?
    Q: What causes a fracture?
    Q: What are common types of fractures?
    Q: How is a fracture diagnosed?
    Q: How do fractures or broken bones occur?
    Q: What are the most common causes of fractures?
    Q: How long does it take a fracture to heal?
    Q: How are fractures treated?
Q: What is the difference between internal fixation and external fixation of a fracture?
Q: When will you do external fixation of a fracture?
Q: How will you do external fixation of a fracture?
Q: When will you do internal fixation of a fracture?
Q: How will you do internal fixation of a fracture?
Q: Where and when will you use a nail, screw, rod, plate in fixation of a fracture?
Q: There is a patient in the ER with a femur fracture and humeral shaft fracture. Should I fix the humerus with a nail or a plate?
Q: How do you decide which pelvis fractures need surgery?
Q: What is your choice for a displaced femoral neck fracture in a 65-year-old: ORIF, hemiarthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty?
Q: I have a 45 Year-old woman with a bicondylar tibial plateau fracture. What type of fixation should I use?
Q: I have a 38 Year-old woman with a distal tibia spiral fracture. Should I try to nail this or just plate it?
Q: When do you use locking plates?
    Q) What Is Osteoarthritis?
    Q) What is the difference between osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
    Q) What Causes Osteoarthritis?
    Q) What Are The Symptoms Of Osteoarthritis?
    Q) My stomach is easily upset. Will arthritis medicine upset my stomach or give me an ulcer?
    Q) Will moving to a different climate improve my osteoarthritis?
    Q) I have osteoarthritis in my hip joint. Will I need surgery to correct it?
    Q) Will a change of diet improve my osteoarthritis?
How long have you had painful joints?
Which joints are involved?
Does the pain wake you at night?
Does it occur at rest?
Do you have swelling or deformities in any joints?
What activities can you no longer do because of the arthritis?
How long ago did you stop doing them?
How far can you walk?
Have your knees ever "given way"?
Do you have difficulty opening jars or grasping objects?
Do you have any other conditions, such as heart or lung disease, that also limit your ability to function?
What have you done to treat your osteoarthritis?
Have you seen a physical therapist?
Do you use a cane (for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip)?
What medications do you take (over-the-counter and prescription) to treat the pain?
How effective are they?
Do you ever stop taking your medications to find out if they make a difference?
Are you ever free of pain?
Do you know the side effects of each medication?
Do you know the indications for joint replacement?

Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions:

Joint examination

    Q) What Is Osteoporosis?
    Q) What Causes Osteoporosis?
    Q) Are You At Risk?
    Q) What Problems Can Osteoporosis Cause?
    Q) How Can You Tell If You Are Developing Osteoporosis?
Back Pain
    Q) What Is Back Pain?
    Q) How common is low back pain?
    Q) Who Is At Risk?
    Q) What Causes Back Pain?
    Q) What Are The Symptoms Of Back Pain?
    Q) How Are Different Types Of Back Pain Diagnosed?
    Q) How Serious Is Back Pain?
    Q) What About Bed Rest?
    Q) What Is The Long-Term Outlook?
    Q) What is a slipped disc?
    Q) Do elastic back supports help prevent back pain?
Sports Medicine
Test and Procedures:
    Bone Biopsy
    Bone Densitometry
    Bone Marrow Biopsy
    Bone Scan
    Bunion Surgery
    Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Bones
    Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine
    Hip Surgery
    Joint Aspiration
    Knee Ligament Repair
    Knee Surgery
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain
    Muscle Biopsy
    Rotator Cuff Repair
    X-rays of the Extremities
    X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
Would you like to add anything?

For Patients

Q) How long do I have to use my crutches/walker/cane?
Q) When can I put more weight on my leg?
Q) How long do I have to use the brace/splint?
Q) Can I shower?
Q) When can I go back to work/school?
Q) What happens to the metal pins, screws, and plates? Will they set off a metal detector? Will they stay in my body permanently or will they be removed?
Q) Should I put ice or heat on any of my swollen areas? If so, for how long?
Q) How long until I can go back to the gym or play sports again?
Q) How long will I be in the hospital?
Q) When should I see my doctor again?
Q) Do I need x-rays for my next office visit?
Q) When do my sutures/staples come out? Should I take them out myself, see my local doctor or return to my surgeon?
Q) How often do I need to change my dressing?
Q) How long will I need to take medication?


You can reduce your chances of getting a fracture by:

Not putting yourself at risk for an accident or other trauma to the bone
Not putting yourself at risk for any sabotage
Can a fracture be induced? How?
Eating a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
    Q) How much calcium do I need?
    Q) Can I take too much calcium?
    Q) What kind of calcium is best?
    Q) How do I take the calcium?
    Q) How do I know if the calcium is being absorbed?
    Q) What do I do if calcium bothers my stomach?
    Q) Can I take calcium if I have had a kidney stone?
    Q) What about vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphate?

Regularly doing weight-bearing exercise to build and maintain strong bones
Regularly doing strengthening exercises to build strong muscles and prevent falls
Patients with osteoporosis may benefit from bisphosphonate medications

Back Pain
    Q) Is it possible to know the cause of my back pain?
    Q) What is the likelihood of a cure for my condition?
    Q) What kind of pain management should I be thinking about?
    Q) Do I need an injection of steroids or other medications?
    Q) What kind of pain relievers do you normally prescribe and what are their side effects?
    Q) Do you collaborate with physical therapists, psychologists and other specialists?
    Q) Are there any new developments for my condition on the horizon?
Last Updated: November 18, 2020