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Study Guide, Chapter 17
1. Aristotle classified plants on the basis of differences in their ____________________.
2. The science of naming and classifying organisms is called ____________________.
3. ____________________ devised the two-name system of naming organisms.
4. Biologists of Linnaeus’s time classified every living thing as either plant or ____________________.
5. A genus is subdivided into smaller groups called ____________________.
6. Each kind of organism on Earth is assigned a unique two-word ____________________.
7. All scientific names are made up of two words that are often derived from the ____________________ language.
8. The first word of a scientific name indicates the ____________________ to which the organism belongs.
9. A kingdom is divided into phyla when animals are being classified or into ____________________ when plants are being classified.
10. The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.
11. Refer to the illustration above. Organism 4 belongs to the kingdom ____________________.
12. Eukaryotic organisms that lack specialized tissue systems are members of the kingdom ____________________.
13. Corals, spiders, and rodents all belong to the kingdom ____________________.
14. The domains of the three-domain system of classification are Archaea, Bacteria, and ____________________.
15. The variety of organisms at all taxonomic levels is called ____________________.
16. Cladistics uses shared and ____________________ characters to group taxa.
17. The Greek philosopher ____________________ classified organisms as either plants or animals.
18. Why might the use of common names to describe organisms sometimes cause confusion? Give several examples to support your answer. Write your answer in the space below.
19. While on a biological expedition to a tropical rain forest, you discover a previously unidentified animal. Explain the guidelines you would follow to choose a genus and species name for the animal. Write your answer in the space below.
20. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the dog (Canis familiaris) are all members of the family Canidae. The mountain lion (Felis concolor) is a member of the family Felidae. Describe the relationships among these animals. Write your answer in the space below.
21. A species is defined as a group of organisms that are similar and can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature. Horses and donkeys can interbreed and produce mules, which cannot produce offspring. Is it possible that horses and donkeys belong to the same species? Explain. Write your answer in the space below.
22. What are the main criteria currently used to classify organisms? Write your answer in the space below.

Study Guide, Chapter 17

Answer Section

1. ANS: stems
2. ANS: taxonomy
3. ANS: Linnaeus
4. ANS: animal
5. ANS: species
6. ANS: scientific name
7. ANS: Latin
8. ANS: genus
9. ANS: divisions
10. ANS: phylogeny
11. ANS: Fungi
12. ANS: Protista
13. ANS: Animalia
14. ANS: Eukarya
15. ANS: biodiversity
16. ANS: derived
17. ANS: Aristotle
18. ANS: The use of common names to describe organisms may cause confusion because common names may not describe an organism accurately. For example, a jellyfish is not a fish. Sometimes the same common name is used for different species. For instance, a maple tree might be a sugar maple, a silver maple, or a red maple. (Other answers are also possible.) Also, some organisms have more than one common name, depending on the region in which they are found.
19. ANS: Based on the animal’s physical characteristics, you would decide if it belongs in a known genus. If it does, it must be given that generic name. If a new generic name is needed, it should be descriptive. The species identifier may describe the appearance or lifestyle of the organism or may be given in honor of an individual. The given scientific name must be Latin or constructed according to the rules of Latin grammar.
20. ANS: Since the coyote and the dog are both members of the same genus, they are the most closely related. The red fox is more closely related to these two animals than to the mountain lion since the mountain lion is in a different family.
21. ANS: Horses and donkeys cannot belong to the same species because their offspring, mules, are infertile.
22. ANS: Scientists use fossils, homologous features, patterns of embryonic development, chromosomes, and macromolecules such as DNA and RNA to classify organisms.