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Verbs
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
What is the form of the verb?
Is it regular or irregular?
Is it infinitive, base, past simple, past participle, present participle, present simple, or third person singular?
What are the headings under which verb forms are classified?
What is the function of a verb in the sentence?
Is the function of a verb in the sentence helping, main, transitive, intransitive, regular, irregular, linking, dynamic, static, active, or stative?
Can you identify transitive or intransitive verb while having a separate word?
How do you identify different verb tense sentences?
Each verb tense sentence has a particular word or feature different than other verb tense sentences.
How do you write a question starting with a helping verb?
How do you write a question starting with a question word?
How many question words are there?
What are the different types of verbs?
What is a modal verb?
What is the difference between an auxiliary verb and a modal verb?
Can you give some examples?
What is a linking verb?
What is a copula?
What is a conjunctive verb? What is a defective verb?
What is a finite verb?
What is a nonfinite verb?
What is an impersonal verb?
What is a lexical verb?
What is a phrasal verb?
What is a reflexive verb?
What is a gerund?
What is Tense?
Are there exceptions?
What are some of the examples?
What are verbals?
How do verbals cause sentence fragments?
What is a split infinitive?
What should you look for to identify the verb in a sentence?
Why is the word "to" followed by a verb in these sentences: I would like to go now; she used to smoke, as a preposition is followed by a "noun" but never by a verb?
How many verbs are in this sentence: I do not want you to explain?
What is Tense?
How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs?
What is a Main Verb Tense?
What are auxiliary verbs?
What are model verbs?
What are verbals?
How do verbals cause sentence fragments?
What is a split infinitive?
What is verb conjugation?
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
All verbs have four principal forms.
The be verb has nine forms.
Not all verbs have nine forms.

- infinitive base past simple past participle present participle present simple, 3rd person singular
regular (to) work work worked worked working works
irregular (to) be* be was were been being am are is
What is the form of the verb?
Is it regular or irregular?
Is it infinitive, base, past simple, past participle, present participle, present simple, or third person singular?
What are the headings under which verb forms are classified?
There are six headings under which verb forms are classified: infinitive, base, past simple, past participle, present participle, present simple, or third person singular.
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?

What is the form of the verb?
Is it regular or irregular?
Is it infinitive, base, past simple, past participle, present participle, present simple, or third person singular?
Forms of a verb can be identified as a separate word or in a sentence.
Function of a verb can be identified in the sentence.
What is the function of a verb in the sentence?
Is the function of a verb in the sentence helping, main, transitive, intransitive, regular, irregular, linking, dynamic, static, active, or stative?
Can you identify transitive or intransitive verb while having a separate word?
No. You need to have a complete sentence. An auxiliary verb can function as a linking verb. You need to have a complete sentence to identify whether a verb is functioning as an auxiliary verb or linking verb.
A question should be a complete sentence, not a fragment.
A question should not be a complex question with many parts.
How do you identify different verb tense sentences?
Each verb tense sentence has a particular word or feature different than other verb tense sentences.

How do you write a question starting with a helping verb?
How do you write a question starting with a question word?
How many question words are there?
What are the different types of verbs?
The Verb's Role in a Sentence

Verbs can be divided according to the job they do in a sentence. The grammar-expert's way of saying this is that we can divide verbs syntactically. These are the divisions and sub-divisions according to syntax:

Main Verbs * finite verbs
    o transitive verbs
    o intransitive verbs
    o linking Verbs
* non-finite verbs
    o infinitives
    o gerunds
    o participles
    + present participle
    + past participle
    + perfect participle

Helping Verbs (auxiliaries)
    Primary helping verbs
    Modal helping verbs
Formation of the Verb-Word

We know that verbs are words, just like any other part of speech. The words that represent the verbs follow different patterns of spelling or sound. Verbs can, therefore, be divided into various kinds depending upon how they are formed. Grammarians would call this a morphological division.

* regular verbs
* irregular verbs
* compound verbs
* phrasal verbs

Verbs According to Meaning

I have earlier answered the question: what is a verb? There I used this division of verbs according to meaning to explain what a verb is. Those who know grammar well call this division of verbs a semantic classification.

* action words (action verbs)
* being
* having

Now you know the names of different verbs and how they are classified. We can classify them according to their role in a sentence (syntactically), or their formation (morphologically), or their meaning (semantically).

Dynamic and stative verbs

What are some of the examples?

or

We can classify them according to their role in a sentence (syntactically), or their formation (morphologically), or their meaning (semantically).

Helping Verbs

Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs".
Primary helping verbs
Modal helping verbs

What is an auxiliary verb?
What is a modal verb?
What is the difference between an auxiliary verb and a modal verb?
Can you give some examples?
Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to give grammatical information and therefore add extra meaning to a sentence, which is not given by the main verb.

Be, Do and Have are auxiliary verbs, they are irregular verbs and can be used as main verbs. The verbs 'to be' and 'to have' are the most commonly used auxiliary verbs and work alongside the main verbs in any statement.

Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs, but will be treated separately, these are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would, they differ from the others in that they can never function as a main verb.

To be

Be is the most common verb in the English language. It can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. It is used a lot in its other forms.

Base form = be

Present form = am/is/are

Past form = was/were

Present Participle / Gerund = being

Past Participle = been

More on the Verb To Be
To do

The verb do is one of the most common verbs in English. It can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. It is often used in questions.

Base form = do

Present form = do/does

Past form = did

Present Participle / Gerund = doing

Past Participle = done
More on the Verb To Do

!Note - The auxiliary verb 'do' is always followed by the base form (infinitive).

To have

Have is one of the most common verbs in the English language.

Base form = have

Present form = have / has

Past form = had

Present Participle / Gerund = having

Past Participle = had

Uses of Do, Does and Did
Uses of Have, Has and Had
Other common auxiliaries are "can," "could," "may," "might," "must," "ought," "should," "will," and "would." A verb like these is called a modal auxiliary and expresses necessity, obligation, or possibility.

Uses of Can and Could
Can versus May
Uses of May and Might
Uses of Will and Would
Uses of Shall and Will and Should
Uses of Used to
Main Verbs

Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs".

There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways:
Transitive and intransitive verbs
Linking verbs
Dynamic and stative verbs
Regular and irregular verbs

Main verbs have meaning on their own (unlike helping verbs).

Transitive and intransitive verbs

A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. Many verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. Look at these examples:

transitive:

* I saw an elephant.
* We are watching TV.
* He speaks English.

saw
watching
speaks

intransitive:

* He has arrived.
* John goes to school.
* She speaks fast.

arrived
goes
speaks

Linking verbs

A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).

* Mary is a teacher. (mary = teacher)
* Tara is beautiful. (tara = beautiful)
* That sounds interesting. (that = interesting)
* The sky became dark. (the sky > dark)
* The bread has gone bad. (bread > bad)

is
sounds
became
has gone

Dynamic and stative verbs

Some verbs describe action. They are called "dynamic", and can be used with continuous tenses. Other verbs describe state (non-action, a situation). They are called "stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning).

dynamic verbs (examples):

* hit, explode, fight, run, go

stative verbs (examples):

* be
* like, love, prefer, wish
* impress, please, surprise
* hear, see, sound
* belong to, consist of, contain, include, need
* appear, resemble, seem

Regular and irregular verbs

This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart.

regular verbs: base, past tense, past participle

* look, looked, looked
* work, worked, worked

irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle

* buy, bought, bought
* cut, cut, cut
* do, did, done

One way to think of regular and irregular verbs is like this: all verbs are irregular and the so-called regular verbs are simply one very large group of irregular verbs.

Often the above divisions can be mixed. For example, one verb could be irregular, transitive and dynamic; another verb could be regular, transitive and stative.
Active and Passive Verbs
What are phrasal verbs?
What is a linking verb?
What is a copula?
What is a conjunctive verb? What is a defective verb?
What is a finite verb?
What is a nonfinite verb?
What is an impersonal verb?
What is a lexical verb?
What is a phrasal verb?
What is a reflexive verb?
What is a gerund?
What is Tense?
Are there exceptions?
What are some of the examples?
Verb phrases consist of one main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs).
What are verbals?
How do verbals cause sentence fragments?
What is a split infinitive?
What should you look for to identify the verb in a sentence?
Why is the word "to" followed by a verb in these sentences: I would like to go now; she used to smoke, as a preposition is followed by a "noun" but never by a verb? In these sentences, "to" is not a preposition. It is part of the infinitive: to go, to smoke.

How many verbs are in this sentence: I do not want you to explain?
1 2 3 4 5

How many verbs are in these sentences: I want you to update records displayed online; whatever you have displayed, others get confused; you need to submit text file format?
1 2 3 4 5

What are the different types of conjunctions?
How are they used in sentences?
What do adverbs of time and adverbs of frequency reveal?

What should you keep in mind while writing a question or interrogative sentence?
Can this question or an interrogative thought be written in already existing types of questions?
1) Which is not a past form of a verb?
was had looked spoke hear

2) Which is not a present form of a verb?
are saw has talk speak

3) Which is not a plural form of a verb?
are were am have do

4) Which is not a 3rd person singular form of a verb?
goes has was are does

5) Which is not a modal?
must is should can may

6) Which is a regular verb?
looked saw was spoke heard

7) Which is not a simple tense of a verb?
will move heard has spoken will talk see

8) Which is not used as an auxiliary of a verb?
was have did will sees

9) Which verb can be both singular and plural?
sees has do am is

10) Which verb can be both singular and plural?
was does have comes hears

1.hear
2.saw
3.am
4.are
5.is
6.looked
7.has spoken
8.sees
9.do
10.have


Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time - past, present and future. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods.

Auxiliary verbs and question words: What's the difference?
Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs".
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.

Gerund as subject:

* Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)
* The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as direct object:

* They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
* They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)

Gerund as subject complement:

* My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
* My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as object of preposition:

* The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
* The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)

A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as:

Points to remember:

1. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.
2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.
Gerunds are sometimes called "verbal nouns".

When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same.

When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:

  • Fishing is fun.

When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle:

  • Anthony is fishing.
  • I have a boring teacher.

In this lesson, we look at the different ways in which we use gerunds, followed by a quiz to check your understanding:

Many grammarians do not like to use the expression "gerund". That is because there is sometimes no clear difference between a gerund and a present participle.

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-gerunds.htm

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/627/01/
All helping verbs are used with a main verb (either expressed or understood*). There are 2 groups of helping verbs:

  • Primary helping verbs, used mainly to change the tense or voice of the main verb, and in making questions and negatives.
  • Modal helping verbs, used to change the "mood" of the main verb.

Study the table below. It shows the prinicipal forms and uses of helping verbs, and explains the differences between primary and modal helping verbs.

* Sometimes we make a sentence that has a helping verb and seems to have no main verb. In fact, the main verb is "understood". Look at the following examples:

  • Question: Can you speak English? (The main verb speak is "expressed".)
  • Answer: Yes, I can. (The main verb speak is not expressed. It is "understood" from the context. We understand: Yes, I can speak English.

But if somebody walked into the room and said "Hello. I can", we would understand

Helping Verbs
PrimaryModal
do(to make simple tenses, and questions and negatives)cancould
be(to make continuous tenses, and the passive voice)maymight
have(to make perfect tenses)willwould
shallshould
must
ought (to)
"Do", "be" and "have" as helping verbs have exactly the same forms as when they are main verbs (except that as helping verbs they are never used in infinitive forms).Modal helping verbs are invariable. They always have the same form.
Primary helping verbs are followed by the main verb in a particular form:
  • do + V1 (base verb)
  • be + -ing (present participle)
  • have + V3 (past participle)
"Ought" is followed by the main verb in infinitive form. Other modal helping verbs are followed by the main verb in its base form (V1).
  • ought + to... (infinitive)
  • other modals + V1 (base verb)
"Do", "be" and "have" can also function as main verbs.Modal helping verbs cannot function as main verbs.

Forms of Main Verbs

Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs".
Main verbs (except the verb "be") have only 4, 5 or 6 forms. "Be" has 9 forms.
  V1V2V3  
 infinitivebasepast simplepast participlepresent participlepresent simple, 3rd person singular
regular(to) workworkworkedworkedworkingworks
irregular(to) sing
(to) make
(to) cut
sing
make
cut
sang
made
cut
sung
made
cut
singing
making
cutting
sings
makes
cuts
(to) do*
(to) have*
do
have
did
had
done
had
doing
having
does
has
infinitivebasepast simplepast participlepresent participlepresent simple
(to) be*bewas, werebeenbeingam, are, is

In the above examples:

  • to cut has 4 forms: to cut, cut, cutting, cuts
  • to work has 5 forms: to work, work, worked, working, works
  • to sing has 6 forms: to sing, sing, sang, sung, singing, sings
  • to be has 9 forms: to be, be, was, were, been, being, am, is, are
  • Example Sentences

    These example sentences use main verbs in different forms.

    Infinitive

    • I want to work
    • He has to sing.
    • This exercise is easy to do.
    • Let him have one.
    • To be, or not to be, that is the question:

    Base - Imperative

    • Work well!
    • Make this.
    • Have a nice day.
    • Be quiet!

    Base - Present simple
    (except 3rd person singular)

    • I work in London.
    • You sing well.
    • They have a lot of money.

    Base - After modal auxiliary verbs

    • I can work tomorrow.
    • You must sing louder.
    • They might do it.
    • You could be right.

    Past simple

    • I worked yesterday.
    • She cut his hair last week.
    • They had a good time.
    • They were surprised, but I was not.

    Past participle

    • I have worked here for five years.
    • He needs a folder made of plastic.
    • It is done like this.
    • I have never been so happy.

    Present participle

    • I am working.
    • Singing well is not easy.
    • Having finished, he went home.
    • You are being silly!

    3rd person singular, present simple

    • He works in London.
    • She sings well.
    • She has a lot of money.
    • It is Vietnamese.
Take a look at this
Present Past Tense:
(Today) (Yesterday)
talk talked
walk walked
play played
laugh laughed
help helped
ask asked
answer answered
shout shouted
finish finished
look looked
am / are / is was
do did
can could
have / has had
go went
run ran
speak spoke
learn learnt
drive drove
eat ate
cry cried
hurry hurried
stop stopped
Recognize a verb when you see one.
Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important functions: Some verbs put static objects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the objects in meaningful ways.

The important thing to remember is that every subject in a sentence must have a verb. Otherwise, you will have written a fragment, a major writing error.

Remember to consider word function when you are looking for a verb.

Many words in English have more than one function. Sometimes a word is a subject, sometimes a verb, sometimes a modifier. As a result, you must often analyze the job a word is doing in the sentence. Look at these two examples:

Know an action verb when you see one.

If you are unsure whether a sentence contains an action verb or not, look at every word in the sentence and ask yourself, "Is this something that a person or thing can do?"

Know a linking verb when you see one.

How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs? If you can substitute am, is, or are for the verb and the sentence still sounds logical, you have a linking verb on your hands. If, after the substitution, the sentence makes no sense, you are dealing with an action verb. Realize that a verb can have more than one part.

You must remember that verbs can have more than one part. In fact, a verb can have as many as four parts. A multi-part verb has a base or main part as well as additional helping or auxiliary verbs with it. Check out the examples below:

Phrasal Verbs and other multi-word verbs

Phrasal verbs are part of a large group of verbs called "multi-word verbs". Phrasal verbs and other multi-word verbs are an important part of the English language. Multi-word verbs, including phrasal verbs, are very common, especially in spoken English. A multi-word verb is a verb like "pick up", "turn on" or "get on with". For convenience, many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. These verbs consist of a basic verb + another word or words. The other word(s) can be prepositions and/or adverbs. The two or three words that make up multi-word verbs form a short "phrase" - which is why these verbs are often all called "phrasal verbs".

The important thing to remember is that a multi-word verb is still a verb. "Get" is a verb. "Get up", is also a verb, a different verb. "Get" and "get up" are two different verbs. They do not have the same meaning. So you should treat each multi-word verb as a separate verb, and learn it like any other verb. Look at these examples. You can see that there are three types of multi-word verb:

Single-word verb (look) You must look before you leap.

Multi-word verbs

Prepositional Verbs
Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal-prepositional Verbs

prepositional verbs (look after) (Who is looking after the baby?)
phrasal verbs (look up) (You can look up my number in the telephone directory.)
phrasal-prepositional verbs (look forward to)I look forward to meeting you.

What is a Main Verb Tense?
What are auxiliary verbs?
What are model verbs?

What is a Main Verb Tense?

The main verb tense states the action of the subject. The main verb can be the only verb in the sentence, but the main verb can also be used with an auxiliary verb or a verb. The auxiliary verb and the modal verb must be used with a main verb tense.

The main verb tense is:

The main verb tense can be in its infinitive/basic form (simple past/v2), past participle/v3.

The main verb tense states what the action of the subject.

-ed -ing -s -es are some common endings that can be added to the main verb according to the tense.

It is common that the main verb doesn't change form, because the auxiliary words change form.

When using the continuous tense and the perfect verb tense auxiliary verb(s) are used with the main verb tense.

When an auxiliary verb is used the main verb doesn't change form according to the subject.

The main verb tense can change form when an auxiliary verb is used to according to the verb form.

Examples:

* The cat eats fish.
* The cats eat the fish
* The cat has eaten the fish.
* The cat ate the fish.
* The cat has been eating the fish.
What are auxiliary verbs?

What are model verbs?

Model verbs are also called auxiliary verbs, helping verbs and model auxiliaries.

Model verbs are not complete verbs, and they can only be used with a verb.

The usage of model verbs:

Model verbs stay in the base form - bare infinitive - the bare infinitive is the infinitive without "to" before the verb.

The following model verbs are used to with the present tense:

can, will, shall, ought to, must, need, may

The following model verbs are used in the past tense:

would, should, could, might

Model verbs are used to answer questions in the short form

Model verbs can be used as part of the grammar structure of the sentence, such as when used with the perfect tenses.

When are model verbs used:

Prediction - Will and Shall

Will and shall can be used to state predict that an event or an action will take place or will occur The model verbs can used to make a prediction about an event or action about the future.

* I think we will be able to go and see the move tonight.

* My mother thinks we will not get home be it starts to rain.

Requests - Offers - Suggestions - Can - Could - May - Shall

To make requests, offers or suggestions can be stated with the model verbs

Permission - Can - Could - May - Might

Can, could, may and might are model verbs that can be used to give permission or deny permission to do something or to someone.

Can I help you cook dinner?

You may not watch T. V. after dinner.

Certainty - Possibility - Can - Might - may- Could - Shall -Can, might

- and could are model verbs that can be used to state certainty and possibility.

Do you think it might rain tomorrow night?

I might be home before midnight.

You can come over tonight if you would like to.

Ability - Inability - Can - Could - Able to

My father hopes that we will be able to go to the moves.

In some languages, verb tenses are not very important or do not even exist. In English, the concept of tense is very important.

The English Tense System

The links below are to lessons for each of the 12 basic tenses. In each lesson we look at two aspects of the tense:

* Structure: How do we make the tense?

* Use: When and why do we use the tense?

Some lessons look at additional aspects, and most of them finish with a quiz to check your understanding.

Present Tense
I do do, I do
Present Continuous Tense
I am doing, I am doing tomorrow
Present Perfect Tense
I have done
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been doing

Past Tense
I did do, I did
Past Continuous Tense
I was doing
Past Perfect Tense
I had done
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been doing

Future Tense
I will do
Future Continuous Tense
I will be doing
Future Perfect Tense
I will have done
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been doing

In all the simple tenses, the verb "have" can be used as the main verb.

In all the perfect tenses the verb "have" is used as an auxiliary verb.

When the verb "have" is used as the main verb, it is usually used only in the simple form (static verbs).

The verb "have" can be used in the progressive tense, only in the present and future.

The verb have can not be used in the past progressive tenses.

Have as the Main Verb in Positive Sentences

Subject

Main Verb "Have"

Continue the Sentence

I

have /had/will have

a car.

We

have /had/will have

a lot of homework.

You

have/had/will have

a nice house.

The cars

have/had/will have

new tires.

Natalie

has/had/will have

a great time in the States.

Her father

has/had/will have

a very good job.

*have is used in the present simple tense.

*has is used in the past simple tense.

*will have is used in the future simple tense.

Have as the Main Verb in Negative

Subject

Auxiliary verb

Not

Main Verb "Have"

Continue the Sentence

I

do/did/will

not

have

time to visit him.

We

do/did/will

not

have

to cook dinner when I got home.

They

do/did/will

not

have

a lot of time to visit Mary.

The car

does/did/will

not

have

a new paint job.

Our teacher

does/did/will

not

have

a hard time teaching us.

My father

does/did/will

not

have

me spent a lot of money on candy.

*Do is used in the present simple tense with the following pronouns I. you, we, they, and plural nouns.

*Does is used in the Present Simple Tense with the following pronouns he, she, it and plural nouns and uncountable nouns.

Question with the verb "have" as the main verb

Wh - word (if needed)

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb "Have"

Continue the Sentence

When

do/did/will

I

have

time to visit him?

-

Do/Did/Will

we

have

to cook dinner when we got home?

Why

do/did/will

they

have

little homework?

When

does/did/will

the car

have

to get a new paint job?

-

Does/Did/Will

our teacher

have

a hard time teaching us?.

Why

does/did/will

your father

have

so much candy in the car?.

What are verbals?
How do verbals cause sentence fragments?
What is a split infinitive?

A verbal is the form of a verb used as a noun, adjective or adverb.

Identifying verbals can be somewhat tricky. While verbals are forms of verbs, they are NOT the action associated with the subject. In other words, they are not verbs.

1. Gerunds are forms of the verb that function as nouns. They always end in "ing."
2. Participles are forms of the verb that function as adjectives. They can end in "ed," "en," or "ing.
3. Infinitives are forms of the verb that may acts as adjectives, adverbs or nouns. They include "to" plus the base form of the verb, as in "to run."

Prepositional verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. On these pages we make a distinction between three types of multi-word verbs: prepositional verbs, phrasal verbs and phrasal-prepositional verbs. On this page we look at prepositional verbs.

Prepositional verbs are made of:

verb + preposition

Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct objects. Here are some examples of prepositional verbs:

prepositional verbsmeaningexamples
 direct object
believe inhave faith in the existence ofI believe inGod.
look aftertake care ofHe is looking afterthe dog.
talk aboutdiscussDid you talk aboutme?
wait forawaitJohn is waiting forMary.

Prepositional verbs cannot be separated. That means that we cannot put the direct object between the two parts.

Instructions: Find the subjects, verbs, and direct objects in these sentences.

1. The football player changed his clothes and took a shower.

2. The speaker read his speech and answered some questions.

3. The carpenter fixed the door and painted the house.

4. The little girl played the piano and sang a song.

5. My neighbor moved his lawn and watered the flowers.

Answers:

1. player = subject / changed = verb / clothes = direct object // took = verb / shower = direct object

2. speaker = subject / read = verb / speech = direct object // answered = verb / questions = direct object

3. carpenter = subject / fixed = verb / door = direct object // painted = verb / house = direct object

4. girl = subject / played = verb / piano = direct object // sang = verb / song = direct object

5. neighbor= subject / moved = verb / lawn = direct object // watered = verb / flowers = direct object

Lexical Verb or Main Verb:

A main verb is also known as a lexical verb. The main verb in a verb phrase is the word that expresses the activity, event and feeling etc. that is being described in the sentence. All main verbs are either action verb or linking verbs.

He plays football.

Sumeet is reading a novel.

Action Verb:

A verb may describe an action or activity, or an event or happening. The word 'verb' comes from Latin word - 'verbum' means word. An action verb may equally describe a mental process such as thinking, knowing or wanting:

Remember, forget, fear, suspect, wonder, need.

An action verb may also describe something that happens to a person or thing: Get, receive and sustain etc.

To find out the action verb in a sentence, ask yourself which word describes what someone or something is doing or thinking or what is happening. There are two kinds of action verb:

i) Transitive Verb

ii) Intransitive Veb

Transitive Verb:

A lexical verb that has a direct object is a transitive verb. Some transitive verbs have both a direct object and an indirect object. Transitive comes from Latin word 'transire' meaning 'to go across'. The action of the verb 'goes across' from the subject of the verb to the direct object of the verb: e.g.

I like cows.

It is further divided into three classes.

Mono transitive verbs:

Mono transitive verbs have only one object, a direct object.

For example: I know the answer.

Di transitive verbs:

Di transitive verbs have two objects, a direct object and an indirect object.

I told him (indirect) the answer. (direct)

Complex Transitive Verbs:

Complex transitive verbs have a direct object and a complement (a word or phrase that says something about the direct object.)

They have painted their house purple. (complement)

I will prove you wrong.

Intransitive Verb:

A lexical verb that has neither a complement nor a direct object is an intransitive verb. All intransitive berbs are action verbs. e.g. :

My brother never smokes in the house.

Some verb can be transitive, intransitive and linking verbs.

She could smell the smoke. (Transitive Verb)

The rose smells sweet. (Linking verb)

Your feet smell. (intransitive)

Linking Verb:

Some verbs don't describe actions, thoughts, events etc. but are used in description of what someone or something is or what they are like. Such verbs are known as linking verb. It is also known as an intensive verb or a copula, a Latin word, meaning 'link' between subject and complement. The main linking verbs in English are:

Appear, be, become, feel, get, grow, keep, look, make, prove, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste and turn etc. e. g.

The soup smells good.

The verbs appear, prove and seem are often followed by to be.

She was proved to be wise.

Auxiliary Verb:

An auxiliary verb is a verb that is used along with a main verb to make different tenses or to express ideas such as possibility, necessity and permission. There are two kinds of these verbs:

Primary auxiliaries :- be, have and do. They can act both as lexical verbs and as auxiliary verb:

I have a new car.

I have bought a new car.

Modal auxiliaries :-

can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should and must. They are followed by bare infinitive whereas Lexical verbs are followed by to infinitives:

I want to know what happened.

I do like ice cream.

We should work hard.

Reflexive Verb:

When the object of a transitive verb is a reflexive pronoun such as himself, myself or ourselves, the verb is sometimes called a reflexive verb. It comes from Latin word 'reflectere' means 'to bend back'. The action of the verb 'bends back' to the subject of the verb, that is to say, it is something that the subject of the verb does to himself or herself.

He warmed himself at the fire.

Have you ever asked yourself that question?

Performative Verb:

These verbs describe actions that are actually performed by using the verb itself in a sentence (such as promise, swear, apologize, thank, confess. e.g.

I promise I will do there.

I swear to speak the truth.

I apologize for the delay.

We thank you for your recent letter.

I confess I had forgotten all about our arrangement to meet up with them.

Strong Verb:

Verbs that form their past tenses and past participles by changing the vowel of the stem or by adding -n are called strong verbs.

Arise arose arisen,

Weak Verb:

Verbs that form their past tenses and past participles by adding -ed, -d and -t are known as weak verb.

Phrasal verb:

A phrasal verb is an expression that consists of lexical verbs plus an adverb or a preposition or both an adverb and a preposition.

Ø With adverb:

away, back, by, down, off, on and out. For example:

Sit down

Go away

Get back the papers.

Ø With prepositions:

At, by, for, into, of, on and with. For example:

He broke into the house.

What are you looking for?

Ø With adverb and prepositions:

Put up with, run out of, go in for, do away with. The adverbs (up, out, in, along, through, away) always precede the prepositon (such as with, of , for).

I can't put up with you.

I have run out of money.

If the direct object is a noun or noun phrase, it may stand either behind or in front of the adverb.

e.g. Hand over the money. or Hand the money over.

If the direct object is a pronoun, it must come between the verb and the adverb. e.g.

Of course, we'll come and see you off at the station.

An indirect object always comes between the verb and the adverb. e.g.

Give me back my pencil.

If there are two objects, the indirect object precedes the direct object. e.g.

Please give me it back.

Verb Phrase:

A verb phrase is a group of two or more words that have the same function as a single verb in a sentence. Be (is, am, are, was, were) + V1+ing, (Has, have, had) + V3

I am reading a book. Mrs. Revathi has taught us well.

A verb phrase can also be analysed in terms of finite and non-finite verbs. It consists of a finite verb plus one or more non-finite verbs. e.g.

She is (finite verb) singing (non-finite verb).

She has (finite verb) been (non-finite verb) singing (non-finite verb).

Finite verb:

Any verb that change, or that may change, in form to match its subject or to indicate present, past or future is a finite verb. It is said to agree with its subject. This is known as agreement or concord. e.g.

She teaches English.

We teach English.

In verb phrases, it is the auxiliary verb that is the finite verb. e.g.

He is going to school.

They are going to school.

Although modal auxiliary verbs are finite verbs and change to indicate reference to the past, the present or the future, they don't, unlike other finite verbs, change in form to agree with their subject. e.g.

He can go tomorrow.

They can go tomorrow.

They could not go last week.

Verbs that express wishes or commands are also considered finite verb, even though, they don't change in form to agree with their subject, and infect usually don't have a subject expressed in the sentence at all. e.g.

Don't touch him.

Non-finite verb:

They don't change in form to agree with a subject, or to indicate past, present and future:

He is working hard.

I am working hard.

He was working hard.

An infinitive need not always follow an auxiliary verbs, it may also follow a lexical verb. But note that while an auxiliary verb is followed by a bare infinitive (V1), a lexical verb is usually followed by a to + V1. But lexical verb 'let' always followed by bare infinitive (V1).

He will come with us.

He wants to come with us.

Let them come in.

Adjective and nouns are sometimes followed by to + V1. e.g.:

I am very glad to see you.

It is time to take tea.

Kinds of non-finite Verb:

Infinitive:

Infinitives are often used after other verbs. A modal verb is followed by a bare infinitive and a lexical verb is followed by to infinitive:

  • We can go. We want to go. They like to sing.

Gerund (Verbal Noun):

Verbal nouns or gerunds have the same form as present participles, but behave as nouns rather than verbs. For example, a verbal noun can act as the subject or object in a sentence:

  • Playing football is good for you.
  • I hate telling lies.

Participle:

Present participles are used to form continuous tenses while past participle are used in the formation of perfect tenses and passive constructions:

  • I am coming. I have gone. He was caught.
Verb
What is a verb?
What are various examples of verbs?
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
Where should a main verb be placed in s simple declarative sentence?
What is the difference between types and forms of verbs?
What are various verb forms?
How many verb forms are there?
Is there a difference between verb conjugation and verb forms?
Verb conjugation and verb tenses: what is the difference?
How many total verb tenses are there?
How do you write a question starting with a helping verb?
Verbs - Spelling Rules
The spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on the ending of that verb:
Verb Conjugation Table

What is the form of the verb?
Is it infinitive, base, past simple, past participle, present participle, present simple, or third person singular?
All verbs have four principal forms.
The be verb has nine forms.
Not all verbs have nine forms.

What are various verb forms?
How many verb forms are there?
-
- infinitive base past simple past participle present participle (Gerund) present simple, 3rd person singular
regular (to) work work worked worked working works
irregular (to) be* be was were been being am are is
- (to) do do did done doing do/does
- (to) have have had had having have / has
Name of verb
Infinitive
Base form
work
write
Past form
worked
wrote
Past participle
worked
written
Present participle
working
writing
regular to workI can work.
I work.
I worked. I have worked.I am working.
irregular to writeI can write.
I write.
I wrote.I have written. I am writing.
What are the headings under which verb forms are classified?
Is there a difference between verb conjugation and verb forms?
No.
Verb conjugation and verb tenses: what is the difference?
What is an infinitive?
Base Form
What is a participle?
What is a past participle?
What is the present participle?
How do you write a question starting with a helping verb?
How do you write a question starting with a question word?
What is an irregular verb?
What is the difference between regular verbs and irregular verbs?
What is a transitive verb?
What is an intransitive verb?
What is an infinitive?
Infinitive or -ing Quiz
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
How do you classify verbs?
There are many different classifications of verbs.
You need to follow the classification that solves real-world problems.
You need to follow those details so that you can write declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.

There are eight types of verbs:
Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
    1. Primary helping (Auxiliary) verbs (3 verbs)
      The primary auxiliary verbs are 'be', 'do', and 'have'.
    2. Modal helping (Auxiliary) verbs (10 verbs)
Main Verbs
    Action verbs
    3. Transitive verbs ( Transitive, intransitive, and ditransitive Verbs)
    4. Intransitive verbs
    5. Linking verbs
    6. Dynamic and stative verbs
    7. Regular verbs
    8. Irregular verbs
Auxiliary Verbs

What are auxiliary verbs?
Primary Auxiliary Verbs

What are primary auxiliary verbs?
The primary auxiliaries are: be, have, and do.
How many primary auxiliary verbs are there?
Be - Am - Is - Are -Was - Were
Do - Does - Did
Have - Has -Had
Verb Quiz
Modal Auxiliary Verbs

What are modal auxiliary verbs?
How many modal auxiliary verbs are there?

Common Modal Verbs
Can Ought to
Could Shall
May Should
Might Will
Must Would
Please make an action verb sentence and linking verb senence with each.
1.)appear
2.)sound
3.)smell
Irregular Simple Past and Past Participle Verb Forms

Simple Present

Simple Past

Past Participle

 

arise

awake

be

bear

beat

become

begin

bend

bet

bite

bleed

blow

break

bring

build

burn

burst

buy

catch

choose

cling

come

cost

creep

cut

deal

dig

dive

do

draw

dream

drink

drive

eat

fall

feed

feel

fight

find

fit

flee

fling

fly

forbid

forget

forgive

forgo

freeze

get

give

go

grind

grow

hang

have

hear

hide

hit

hold

hurt

keep

kneel

knit

know

lay

lead

leap

leave

lend

let

lie (down)

light

lose

make

mean

meet

pay

prove

put

quit

read

ride

ring

rise

run

saw

say

see

seek

sell

send

set

sew

shake

shave

shear

shine

shoot

show

shrink

shut

sing

sink

sit

slay

sleep

slide

sneak

speak

speed

spend

spill

spin

spit

split

spread

spring

stand

steal

stick

sting

stink

strew

strike

strive

swear

sweep

swim

swing

take

teach

tear

tell

think

thrive

throw

undergo

understand

upset

wake

wear

weave

weep

win

wind

withdraw

wring

write

 

arose

awoke

was, were

bore

beat

became

began

bent

bet

bit

bled

blew

broke

brought

built

burned or burnt

burst

bought

caught

chose

clung

came

cost

crept

cut

dealt

dug

dived or dove

did

drew

dreamed or dreamt

drank

drove

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

fit, fitted

fled

flung

flew

forbade or forbad

forgot

forgave

forwent

froze

got

gave

went

ground

grew

hung or hanged

had

heard

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt or kneeled

knitted or knit

knew

laid

led

leapt or leaped

left

lent

let

lay

lit or lighted

lost

made

meant

met

paid

proved

put

quit

read

rode

rang

rose

ran

sawed

said

saw

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

shaved

sheared

shone or shined

shot

showed

shrank or shrunk

shut

sang

sank

sat

slew

slept

slid

sneaked or snuck

spoke

sped

spent

spilled or spilt

spun

spat or spit

split

spread

sprang

stood

stole

stuck

stung

stank or stunk

strewed

struck

strove or strived

swore

swept

swam

swung

took

taught

tore

told

thought

thrived or throve

threw

underwent

understood

upset

woke or waked

wore

wove

wept

won

wound

withdrew

wrung

wrote

 

arisen

awoken

been

borne

beaten or beat

become

begun

bent

bet

bitten

bled

blown

broken

brought

built

burned or burnt

burst

bought

caught

chosen

clung

come

cost

crept

cut

dealt

dug

dived

done

drawn

dreamed or dreamt

drunk

driven

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

fit, fitted

fled

flung

flown,

forbidden or forbade

forgotten

forgiven

forgone

frozen

gotten or got

given

gone

ground

grown

hung or hanged

had

heard

hidden

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt or kneeled

knitted or knit

known

laid

led

leapt or leaped

left

lent

let

lain

lit or lighted

lost

made

meant

met

paid

proved or proven

put

quit

read

ridden

rung

risen

run

sawed or sawn

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn or sewed

shaken

shaved or shaven

sheared or shorn

shone or shined

shot

shown or showed

shrunk or shrunken

shut

sung

sunk

sat

slain

slept

slid

sneaked or snuck

spoken

sped

spent

spilled or spilt

spun

spat or spit

split

spread

sprung

stood

stolen

stuck

stung

stunk

strewn

struck or stricken

striven or strived

sworn

swept

swum

swung

taken

taught

torn

told

thought

thrived or thriven

thrown

undergone

understood

upset

woken or waked

worn

woven

wept

won

wound

withdrawn

wrung

written

Here is a list of commonly used regular verbs with their base form, simple past form and the past participle.

BASE FORM

SIMPLE PAST

PAST PARTICIPLE

Accept

Accepted

Accepted

Achieve

Achieved

Achieved

Add

Added

Added

Admire

Admired

Admirer

Admit

Admitted

Admitted

Adopt

Adopted

Adopted

Advise

Advised

Advised

Agree

Agreed

Agreed

Allow

Allowed

Allowed

Announce

Announced

Announced

Appreciate

Appreciated

Appreciated

Approve

Approved

Approved

Argue

Argued

Argued

Arrive

Arrived

Arrived

Ask

Asked

Asked

Assist

Assisted

Assisted

Attack

Attacked

Attacked

Bake

Baked

Baked

Beg

Begged

Begged

Behave

Behaved

Behaved

Boil

Boiled

Boiled

Borrow

Borrowed

Borrowed

Brush

Brushed

Brushed

Bury

Buried

Buried

Call

Called

Called

Challenge

Challenged

Challenged

Change

Changed

Changed

Chase

Chased

Chased

Cheat

Cheated

Cheated

Cheer

Cheered

Cheered

Chew

Chewed

Chewed

Clap

Clapped

Clapped

Clean

Cleaned

Cleaned

Collect

Collected

Collected

Compare

Compared

Compared

Complain

Complained

Complained

Confess

Confessed

Confessed

Construct

Constructed

Constructed

Control

Controlled

Controlled

Copy

Copied

Copied

Count

Counted

Counted

Create

Created

Created

Cry

Cried

Cried

Cycle

Cycled

Cycled

Damage

Damaged

Damaged

Dance

Danced

Danced

Deliver

Delivered

Delivered

Destroy

Destroyed

Destroyed

Divide

Divided

Divided

Drag

Dragged

Dragged

Earn

Earned

Earned

Employ

Employed

Employed

Encourage

Encouraged

Encouraged

Enjoy

Enjoyed

Enjoyed

Establish

Established

Established

Estimate

Estimated

Estimated

Exercise

Exercised

Exercised

Expand

Expanded

Expanded

Explain

Explained

Explained

Fry

Fried

Fried

Gather

Gathered

Gathered

Greet

Greeted

Greeted

Guess

Guessed

Guessed

Harass

Harassed

Harassed

Hate

Hated

Hated

Help

Helped

Helped

Hope

Hoped

Hoped

Identify

Identified

Identified

Interrupt

Interrupted

Interrupted

Introduce

Introduced

Introduced

Irritate

Irritated

Irritated

Joke

Joked

Joked

Jump

Jumped

Jumped

Kick

Kicked

Kicked

Kill

Killed

Killed

Kiss

Kissed

Kissed

Laugh

Laughed

Laughed

Lie

Lied

Lied

Like

Liked

Liked

Listen

Listened

Listened

Love

Loved

Loved

Marry

Married

Married

Measure

Measured

Measured

Move

Moved

Moved

Murder

Murdered

Murdered

Need

Needed

Needed

Obey

Obeyed

Obeyed

Offend

Offended

Offended

Offer

Offered

Offered

Open

Opened

Opened

Paint

Painted

Painted

Park

Parked

Parked

Phone

Phoned

Phoned

Pick

Picked

Picked

Play

Played

Played

Pray

Prayed

Prayed

Print

Printed

Printed

Pull

Pulled

Puled

Punch

Punched

Punched

Punish

Punished

Punished

Purchase

Purchased

Purchased

Push

Pushed

Pushed

Question

Questioned

Questioned

Race

Raced

Raced

Relax

Relaxed

Relaxed

Remember

Remembered

Remembered

Reply

Replied

Replied

Retire

Retired

Retired

Return

Returned

Returned

Rub

Rubbed

Rubbed

Scold

Scolded

Scolded

Select

Selected

Selected

Smoke

Smoked

Smoked

Snore

Snored

Snored

Stare

Stared

Stared

Start

Started

Started

Study

Studied

Studied

Talk

Talked

Talked

Thank

Thanked

Thanked

Travel

Travelled

Travelled

Trouble

Troubled

Troubled

Type

Typed

Typed

Use

Used

Used

Visit

Visited

Visited

Wait

Waited

Waited

Walk

Walked

Walked

Want

Wanted

Wanted

Warn

Warned

Warned

Wink

Winked

Winked

Worry

Worried

Worried

Yell

Yelled

Yelled


The following table shows a selection of regular participles.
Verb Present Participle
ask asking
call calling
dally dallying
empty emptying
fill filling
grease greasing