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|Assessment of a patient by a physician.|
|Blood Sugar Level Ranges|
|Endocrine Emergencies / Symptoms|
|Endocrine System / All human symptoms and signs. Endocrine System|
|Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System|
|Hormones from Endocrine Glands|
|What is HbA1c?|
|List of Endocrine Disorders / Most common and least common|
|List of endocrine diseases|
The glands of the endocrine system are:
The pituitary can be divided into the anterior and posterior gland. The hormones below are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, except for ADH and oxytocin, which is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
The pineal gland was believed to play no significant role in the body an was thought of as a vestigial remnant. It is now known that the pineal gland secretes melatonin and related hormones which may play a role in sleep and possibly affect the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
The thymus gland in adults seems to have little functionality compared to early life but plays a role in the maturation of immune cells. It is not an endocrine gland.
The following tissues and organs in the body also produce and secrete hormones but are not endocrine glands.
Adipocytes (Fat Cells)
Discussed under Digestive Hormones.
Discussed under Digestive Hormones.
What are Digestion Hormones?
Digestive hormones (gut hormones) are chemical ‘messengers’ which signal the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs to perform different actions in order to coordinate the digestive process.
Gastric Inihibitory Polypeptide (GIP)
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)
Diabetes Mellitus |
Acute Adrenal Insufficiency
Symptoms and Signs
Hypopituitarism: Symptoms & Signs
The symptoms of hypopituitarism result from decreased hormone production by the pituitary gland. When all the pituitary hormones are affected, the condition is known as panhypopituitarism. Isolated or partial hypopituitarism results when the production of one or more hormones is decreased. The symptoms are variable and depend on the severity of the condition and the number of hormones that are affected. Symptoms can include
How many endocrine system organs are there in the human body? |
Can you name the endocrine system organs in the human body?
The female ovaries and the male testes are a part of which body system? Can these organs be members of more than one organ system? Why or why not?
Testes are one of the main components in the male reproductive system as they are involved in the production of both androgens and sperm. These male gonads are located in the scrotum.
The female gonads are known as ovaries located in the pelvic cavity. These paired ovals are about two to three centimeter each in length. They are the site where production and released of egg cells takes place. Oocyte grows within this environment.
Female ovaries and male testes are the structural components of the reproductive system. These two organs are also part of the endocrine system.
Pituitary Gland Function
What is the Pituitary Gland?
The pituitary is an endocrine (hormone-producing) gland that sits just beneath the base of the brain, behind the bridge of the nose. It is very small – only about the size of a pea. The pituitary gland is very important as it takes messages from the brain (via a gland called the hypothalamus) and uses these messages to produce hormones that affect many parts of the body, including stimulating all the other hormone-producing glands to produce their own hormones. For this reason it is often referred to as the ‘master gland’.
The pituitary gland has two parts. The anterior (or front) pituitary produces hormones that affect the breasts, adrenals, thyroid, ovaries and testes, as well as several other hormones. The main glands affected by the posterior (or rear) pituitary are the kidneys.
How Does the Normal Pituitary Work?
The pituitary gland produces a number of hormones. Hormones are essential for many aspects of life. Some send messages to other endocrine glands to tell them to increase or decrease production of their hormones. One such example is TSH, which stimulates the thyroid to grow and produce thyroid hormones.
The main hormones produced by the pituitary are:
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH anti-diuretic hormone, or vasopressin
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
LH luteinizing hormone
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions, especially the body's ability to change calories into energy that powers cells and organs. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats, how your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to make a baby. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a host of other hormone-related disorders.
Glands of the Endocrine System
Each gland of the endocrine system releases specific hormones into your bloodstream. These hormones travel through your blood to other cells and help control or coordinate many body processes.
Endocrine glands include:
•Adrenal glands: Two glands that sit on top of the kidneys that release the hormone cortisol.
•Hypothalamus: A part of the lower middle brain that tells the pituitary gland when to release hormones.
•Ovaries: The female reproductive organs that release eggs and produce sex hormones.
•Islet cells in the pancreas: Cells in the pancreas control the release of the hormones insulin and glucagon.
•Parathyroid: Four tiny glands in the neck that play a role in bone development.
•Pineal gland: A gland found near the center of the brain that may be linked to sleep patterns.
•Pituitary gland: A gland found at the base of brain behind the sinuses. It is often called the "master gland" because it influences many other glands, especially the thyroid. Problems with the pituitary gland can affect bone growth, a woman's menstrual cycles, and the release of breast milk. •Testes: The male reproductive glands that produce sperm and sex hormones.
•Thymus: A gland in the upper chest that helps develop the body's immune system early in life. •Thyroid: A butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck that controls metabolism.
Even the slightest hiccup with the function of one or more of these glands can throw off the delicate balance of hormones in your body and lead to an endocrine disorder, or endocrine disease.
Causes of Endocrine Disorders
Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:
•Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone imbalance.
•Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels.
The endocrine's feedback system helps control the balance of hormones in the bloodstream. If your body has too much or too little of a certain hormone, the feedback system signals the proper gland or glands to correct the problem. A hormone imbalance may occur if this feedback system has trouble keeping the right level of hormones in the bloodstream, or if your body doesn't clear them out of the bloodstream properly.
Increased or decreased levels of endocrine hormone may be caused by:
•A problem with the endocrine feedback system
•Failure of a gland to stimulate another gland to release hormones (for example, a problem with the hypothalamus can disrupt hormone production in the pituitary gland)
•A genetic disorder, such as multiple endocrine meoplasia (MEN) or congenital hypothyroidism •Infection
•Injury to an endocrine gland
•Tumor of an endocrine gland
Most endocrine tumors and nodules (lumps) are noncancerous. They usually do not spread to other parts of the body. However, a tumor or nodule on the gland may interfere with the gland's hormone production.
Types of Endocrine Disorders
There are many different types of endocrine disorders. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder diagnosed in the ______.
Other endocrine disorders include:
Adrenal insufficiency. The adrenal gland releases too little of the hormone cortisol and sometimes, aldosterone. Symptoms include fatigue, stomach upset, dehydration, and skin changes. Addison's disease is a type of adrenal insufficiency.
Cushing's disease. Overproduction of a pituitary gland hormone leads to an overactive adrenal gland. A similar condition called Cushing's syndrome may occur in people, particularly children, who take high doses of corticosteroid medications.
Gigantism (acromegaly) and other growth hormone problems. If the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a child's bones and body parts may grow abnormally fast. If growth hormone levels are too low, a child can stop growing in height.
Hyperthyroidism. The thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, leading to weight loss, fast heart rate, sweating, and nervousness. The most common cause for an overactive thyroid is an autoimmune disorder called Grave's disease.
Hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to fatigue, constipation, dry skin, and depression. The underactive gland can cause slowed development in children. Some types of hypothyroidism are present at birth.
Hypopituitarism. The pituitary gland releases little or no hormones. It may be caused by a number of different diseases. Women with this condition may stop getting their periods.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia I and II (MEN I and MEN II). These rare, genetic conditions are passed down through families. They cause tumors of the parathyroid, adrenal, and thyroid glands, leading to overproduction of hormones.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Overproduction of androgens interfere with the development of eggs and their release from the female ovaries. PCOS is a leading cause of infertility.
Precocious puberty. Abnormally early puberty that occurs when glands tell the body to release sex hormones too soon in life.
Testing for Endocrine Disorders
If you have an endocrine disorder, your doctor may refer you to a specialist called an endocrinologist. An endocrinologist is specially trained in problems with the endocrine system.
The symptoms of an endocrine disorder vary widely and depend on the specific gland involved. However, most people with endocrine disease complain of fatigue and weakness.
Blood and urine tests to check your hormone levels can help your doctors determine if you have an endocrine disorder. Imaging tests may be done to help locate or pinpoint a nodule or tumor.
Treatment of endocrine disorders can be complicated, as a change in one hormone level can throw off another. Your doctor or specialist may order routine blood work to check for problems or to determine if your medication or treatment plan needs to be adjusted.
What is endocrinology? |
Endocrinology is the study of hormones.
Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
What is endocrinology?
What is the endocrine system?
What do endocrinologists do?
What is an endocrinologist?
Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (GRA)
Glucose homeostasis disorders
Type 2 Diabetes
Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young
Toxic multinodular goitre
Thyroid hormone resistance
Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease
Parathyroid gland disorders
Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone)
Rickets and osteomalacia
Pituitary gland disorders
Hypopituitarism (or Panhypopituitarism)
Prolactinoma (or Hyperprolactinemia)
Sex hormone disorders
Disorders of sex development or intersex disorders
Androgen insensitivity syndromes
Hypogonadism (Gonadotropin deficiency)
Inherited (genetic and chromosomal) disorders
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
MEN type 1
MEN type 2a
MEN type 2b
See also separate organs
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes
Incidentaloma - an unexpected finding on diagnostic imaging, often of endocrine glands
|Principles of endocrinology|
|The endocrine pancreas|
|4. Relevant anatomy, physiology, biochemistry|
|5. Symptoms and signs|
|6. Medical emergencies associated with this medical condition|
|7. Risk factors|
|8. Normal values|
|9. Various diagnostic tests|
|12. Treatment or management|
|14. History of this medical condition|
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young
What is pre-diabetes? If a person is diagnosed with this, does it mean it will develop into diabetes?
What is the difference between pre-diabetes and diabetes?
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and their causes?
What warning signs should a patient with a risk of diabetes look for?
What are some tips for maintaining proper diet and exercise through the holidays?
What foods or super foods should people with diabetes focus on during holiday gatherings?
What is a healthy glucose level, and why is it important to maintain?
Does eating a lot of sugar cause diabetes?
Are artificial sweeteners safe?
What’s the difference between carbohydrates and sugar?
Is diabetes reversible?
How is diabetes diagnosed?
When is medication required?
How long should medication last?
What type of medication is available?
Is diabetes reversible?
How could this be prevented?
Here are further guidelines.
|The thyroid gland|
|The adrenal gland|
|The parathyroid glands and vitamin D|
|The pituitary gland|
|Cardiovascular and renal|
Public Alert |
Stay away from public affairs.
This is in reference to a seminar on November 11, 2010, at SKIMS, Srinagar, Kashmir. The topic for discussion is Diabetes. I have written a book on diabetes. The state department of health can procure this book and circulate it to all relevant hospitals and departments.|
Women’s Health Signs & Symptoms
During adolescence, teenagers are always concerned about breast development, beginning menstrual cycles, and even shaving their legs. These may or may not be signs of endocrine disorders.
What happens if a girl doesn't develop breasts or hair or have periods when expected?
There is a wide variation in the time of expected puberty. If a girl has not developed breasts and axillary and pubic hair by the age of 14 and has not by age 16, she should undergo medical evaluation. Although in some cases, this may simply reflect either a family trait or a harmless deviation from "normal," this may be the first sign of a number of medical conditions, including thyroid, adrenal, pituitary or ovarian disorders. At times, undernutrition or excessive exercise may delay the onset of puberty (see below).
Also, adrenal disease may be a consideration for girls who fail to begin menstruating or have irregular periods, excess facial and body hair, and acne. An early rapid growth spurt followed by a premature end to the growing period can cause short stature. Sometimes these symptoms can seem to have the same presentation as PCOS.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are the most important and common risk factors for heart attacks in women. Women who have insulin resistance are at particular risk. Women with type 2 diabetes have an extremely high risk of heart disease and the symptoms of heart disease may be different from the typical symptoms. They may not have chest pain but merely fatigue, weakness during exercise, or other vague symptoms. Women with diabetes should be regularly tested for silent heart disease and should follow strict guidelines to control blood sugars, cholesterol, and blood pressure. Certain medications may be prescribed to reduce the risk of heart disease or reduce the risk of a second heart attack in a woman who has already had one. These may include statin drugs, aspirin, ACE inhibitors or Angiotensin blockers, and beta blockers. It is very important for women with diabetes to let their physicians know about any symptoms they might be having.
Between 4.0 to 5.4 mmol/L (72 to 99 mg/dL) when fasting |
•Up to 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) 2 hours after eating
|Upon waking||Before meals
|At least 90 minutes after meals
|Non-diabetic*||4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L||under 7.8 mmol/L|
|Type 2 diabetes||4 to 7 mmol/L||under 8.5 mmol/L|
|Type 1 diabetes||5 to 7 mmol/L||4 to 7 mmol/L||5 to 9 mmol/L|
|Children w/ type 1 diabetes||4 to 7 mmol/L||4 to 7 mmol/L||5 to 9 mmol/L|
*The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines.
Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges
For the majority of healthy individuals, normal blood sugar levels are as follows:
For people with diabetes, blood sugar level targets are as follows:
Blood sugar levels in diagnosing diabetes
The following table lays out criteria for diagnoses of diabetes and prediabetes.
Random plasma glucose test
A blood sample for a random plasma glucose test can be taken at any time. This doesn’t require as much planning and is therefore used in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes when time is of the essence.
Fasting plasma glucose test
A fasting plasma glucose test is taken after at least eight hours of fasting and is therefore usually taken in the morning.
The _____ guidelines regard a fasting plasma glucose result of 5.5 to 6.9 mmol/l as putting someone at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly when accompanied by other risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
An oral glucose tolerance test involves taking a first taking a fasting sample of blood and then taking a very sweet drink containing 75g of glucose.
After having this drink you need to stay at rest until a further blood sample is taken after 2 hours.
HbA1c test for diabetes diagnosis
An HbA1c test does not directly measure the level of blood glucose, however, the result of the test is influenced by how high or low your blood glucose levels have tended to be over a period of 2 to 3 months.
Indications of diabetes or prediabetes are given under the following conditions: