Medical biochemistry
Medical biochemistry laboratory
What are the main branches of biochemistry?
Medical biochemistry (human biochemistry)
Animal biochemistry
Plant biochemistry
Here you will find guidelines related to medical biochemistry (human biochemistry)

What are other terms for medical biochemistry?
Clinical chemistry
Chemical pathology
Clinical biochemistry
Laboratory medicine

What reference ranges of the human body should physicians know?
Blood
Urine
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
Feces
Vital signs

Are there any discrepancies, variations or controversies relevant to reference ranges for human blood tests?
Yes.

What are examples of discrepancies, variations or controversies relevant to reference ranges for human blood tests?
Research has revealed that the reference ranges for human blood tests vary from laboratory to laboratory.
This needs to be standardized.

What tests are usually done on human blood?
Acid-base and arterial blood gases
Cardiac blood tests
Electrolytes and metabolites
Endocrinology Test List
Enzymes and proteins
Hematology red blood cells, white blood cells, coagulation
Immunology; for example, acute phase proteins, isotypes of antibodies, serum free light chains (FLC): kappa/lambda ratio
Ions and trace metals
Lipids
Liver function
Medication tests; for example, digoxin, lithium, paracetamol
Toxins
Tumor markers
Vitamins

Arterial Blood Gases
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/arterialbloodgases.html

What range of normal values should you follow for human blood tests?
Here are further facts.

Electrolytes and metabolites

Osmolality
Urea
Uric acid
Creatinine
BUN/Creatinine Ratio (the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the bloodureanitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and serumcreatinine(Cr) (mg/dL)
Plasma glucose (fasting)
Full blood glucose (fasting)
Random glucose
Lactate (venous)
Lactate (arterial)
Pyruvate
Ketones

What are examples of electrolytes in human blood?
Seven major electrolytes and their function.
1. Sodium (Na+)
2. Chloride (Cl-)
3. Potassium (K+)
4. Magnesium (Mg++)
5. Calcium (Ca++)
6. Phosphate (HPO4)
7. Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

Enzymes and proteins

Serum total protein
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Amylase
D-dimer
Lipase
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
Acid phosphatase
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)

Medication tests; for example, digoxin, lithium, paracetamol

What are the causes of elevated urea in human blood test?
Dehydration is the most common cause

What are the causes of elevated creatinine in human blood tests?
Medical biochemistry laboratory error.
Medical biochemistry laboratory reference range variations.
Non-pathological conditions, such as dehydration.
Other similar causes.

Kidney damage is not always the cause of elevated urea or creatinine in human blood tests.

Basic Metabolic Panel

What is the Basic Metabolic Panel blood test for human beings?
A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a blood test consisting of a set of seven or eight biochemical tests and is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers.

What are other terms for basic metabolic panel blood test for human beings?
The Basic Metabolic Panel is also called Chem 7.

What is included in Basic Metabolic Panel human blood test?
Glucose
Calcium
Sodium
Potassium
CO2 (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate)
Chloride
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Creatinine

Oxygen saturation can be measured separately by pulse oximetry.

When is this test ordered?
Your provider may order this test during a yearly exam or routine checkup.

What is the difference between basic metabolic panel, comprehensive metabolic panel and metabolic panel 20 in human blood tests?
8 components are measured in basic metabolic panel.
14 components are measured in comprehensive metabolic panel.
20 components are measured in Chem 20 metabolic panel.

What is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel human blood test?
Albumin: 3.4 to 5.4 g/dL
Alkaline phosphatase: 44 to 147 IU/L
ALT (alanine aminotransferase): 10 to 40 IU/L
AST (aspartate aminotransferase): 10 to 34 IU/L
BUN (blood urea nitrogen): 6 to 20 mg/dL
Calcium: 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL
Chloride: 96 - 106 mEq/L
CO2 (carbon dioxide): 23 to 29 mEq/L
Creatinine: 0.6 to 2.0 mg/dL
Glucose: 70 to 100 mg/dL
Potassium: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L
Sodium: 135 to 145 mEq/L
Total bilirubin: 0.3 to 1.9 mg/dL
Total protein: 6.0 to 8.3 g/dL

Normal values for glucose and creatinine can vary with age.

What is included in Chem 20 metabolic panel human blood test?
  1. Alanine aminotransferase

  2. Albumin

  3. Albumin/Globulin

  4. Alkaline phosphatase

  5. Aspartate aminotransferase

  6. Bilirubin

  7. Calcium

  8. Carbon dioxide

  9. Chloride

  10. Cholesterol

  11. Creatinine

  12. Globulin

  13. Glucose

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase

  15. Phosphate

  16. Potassium

  17. Protein

  18. Sodium

  19. Urate

  20. Urea nitrogen



Questions that need to be answered by all biochemistry laboratories conducting human blood tests.

What are the various essential topics, issues in medical biochemistry?
What is the difference between chemistry, biochemistry and medical biochemistry?
What is medical biochemistry?
Reference ranges for human blood tests vary according to resource: How would you resolve this issue?
What reference ranges of human blood tests does your biochemistry laboratory follow?
How and why was this reference range selected for human blood and with what scientific rationale?
How accurate and reliable are human blood tests measured by blood analyzers in various hospitals or biochemistry laboratories?
What types of human blood tests are conducted at this biochemistry laboratory?
What equipment is utilized from start to finish for human blood tests at this biochemistry laboratory?
What human blood chemistry analyzer is currently the best for blood tests; for example, comprehensive metabolic panel with 14 components for testing human blood?
Last Updated: March 13, 2017